Jump to content


Frae Wikipedia, the free beuk o knawledge
Clockwise frae tap richt: Spasskaya Touer o the Moscow Kremlin; MIBC; Reid Squerr, Saunt Basil's Cathedral; Bolshoi Theatre; Moscow State Varsity; an Cathedral o Christ the Saviour.
Banner o Moscow
Coat of airms o Moscow
Coat airms
Anthem: Ma Moscow
Coordinates: 55°45′N 37°37′E / 55.750°N 37.617°E / 55.750; 37.617Coordinates: 55°45′N 37°37′E / 55.750°N 37.617°E / 55.750; 37.617
Federal destrictCentral[1]
Economic regionCentral[2]
EstablishedAfore 1147[3]
 • BodiCeety Duma[4]
 • Mayor[5]Sergey Sobyanin[5]
 • Total1091 km2 (421 sq mi)
Area rank83rd
 (2010 Census)[7]
 • Total11,514,330
 • Estimate 
12,506,468 (+8.6%)
 • Rank1st
 • Density11,000/km2 (27,000/sq mi)
 • Urban
 • Rural
Time zoneUTC+3 (Moscow Time Edit this on Wikidata[9])
ISO 3166 codeRU-MOW
License plates77, 99, 97, 177, 199, 197
OKTMO ID45000000
Offeecial leidsRoushie[10]

Moscow is the caipital, the maist populous city, an the maist populous federal subject o Roushie. The city is a major poleetical, economic, cultural, releegious, financial, educational, an transportation centre o Roushie an the warld, a global city. Moscow is the maist populous city on the continent o Europe an the seivent lairgest ceety proper in the warld, a megaceety. The population o Moscow (as o 1 Januar 2010) is 10,563,038.

Moscow is situatit on the Moskva River in the Central Federal Destrict o European Roushie. In the course o its history the city haes served as the caipital o a progression o states, frae the medieval Grand Duchy o Moscow an the subsequent Tsardom o Roushie tae the Soviet Union. Moscow is the site o the Moscow Kremlin, an auncient fortress that is the day the residence o the Roushie Preses an o the executive branch o the Govrenment o Roushie. The Kremlin is ane o several Warld Heritage Sites in the city. Baith chambers o the Roushie parliament (the State Duma an the Federation Cooncil) sit in Moscow anaa.

The ceety is served bi an extensive transit netwirk, that includes fower internaitional airports, nine railwey terminals, an the Moscow Metro, seicont anerlie tae Tokyo in terms o ridership an recognised as ane o the ceety's laundmerks due tae the rich an varied airchitecture o its 182 stations.

Ower time, Moscow haes acquired a nummer o epithets, maist referrin tae its size an preeminent status athin the naition: The Third Rome (Третий Рим), Whitestane (Белокаменная), The First Throne (Первопрестольная), The Fowerty Fowerties (Сорок Сороков).

The demonym for a Moscow resident is Moskvitch.


[eedit | eedit soorce]


[eedit | eedit soorce]
Historical population
Population size may be affected by changes on administrative divisions.
Population o Moscow (1350–2009)
Red Square haes lang been ane o the ceety's maist important meetin places

Accordin tae the results o the 2010 Census, the population o Moscow wis 11,503,501;[11] up frae 10,382,754 recordit in the 2002 Census.[7]

At the time o the offeecial 2010 Census, the ethnic makup o the ceety wis:[11]

    • Roushie: 9,930,410 (91.6%)
    • Ukrainian: 154,104 (1.4%)
    • Tatar: 149,043 (1.4%)
    • Armenie: 106,466 (1%)
    • Azeri: 57,123 (0.5%)
    • Jews: 53,145 (0.5%)
    • Belaroushie: 39,225 (0.4%)
    • Georgie: 38,934 (0.4%)
    • Uzbek: 35,595 (0.3%)
    • Tajik: 27,280 (0.2%)
    • Moldovan: 21,699 (0.2%)
    • Mordvin: 17,095 (0.2%)
    • Chechen: 14,524 (0.1%)
    • Chuvash: 14,313 (0.1%)
    • Ossetians: 11,311 (0.1%)
    • Koreans: 9,783 (0.1%)
    • Kazakh: 9,393 (0.1%)
    • Bashkir: 6,609 (0.1%)
    • Cheenese: 3,222 (0.03%)
    • Vietnamese: 2,970 (0.03%)
    • Ithers: 132,848 (1.2%)
  • 668,409 fowk wur registered frae admeenistrative databases, an coud no declare an ethnicity. It is estimatit that the proportion o ethnicities in this group is the same as that o the declared group.[12]

The offeecial population o Moscow is taken frae those hauldin "permanent residency." Accordin tae Roushie's Federal Migration Service, Moscow an aw contains 1,800,000 offeecial "guests" who hae temporary residency on the basis o visas or ither documentation. The nummer o unoffeecial guests, those athoot proper documentation, is estimatit tae be an additional 1,000,000 fowk.[13]

Admeenistrative diveesions an govrenment

[eedit | eedit soorce]
View frae the Seiven Sisters in Kudrinskaya Square. The mayor's heichrise office (the umwhile Comecon heidquarters) is tae the left, the Roushie govrenment biggin tae the richt


[eedit | eedit soorce]

Moscow is the seat o pouer for the Roushie Federation. At the centre o the ceety, in Central Admeenistrative Okrug, is the Moscow Kremlin, which hooses the hame o the Preses o Roushie as well as mony o the facilities for the naitional govrenment. This includes numerous military heidquarters an the heidquarters o the Moscow Military Destrict. Moscow, lik wi ony naitional caipital, is an aw the host o aw the foreign embassies an diplomats representin a multitude o naitions in Roushie. Moscow is designatit as ane o anerlie twa Federal ceeties o Roushie (the ither ane bein Saunt Petersburg). Amang the 83 federal subjects o Roushie, Moscow represents the maist populatit ane an the smawest ane in terms o area. Lastly, Moscow is locatit athin the central economic region, ane o twal regions athin Russia wi seemilar economic goals.

Admeenistrative diveesions

[eedit | eedit soorce]
Administrative okrugs o Moscow: 1. Ceety o Zelenograd 2. Northren 3. North-Eastren 4. North-Westren 5. Central 6. Eastren 7. Soothren 8. Sooth-Eastern 9. Sooth-Wastren 10. Western

The entire ceety o Moscow is heidit bi ane mayor (Sergey Sobyanin). The ceety o Moscow is dividit intae 12 admeenistrative okrugs an 146 destricts.

The Roushie caipital's specific toun-plannin development began tae shaw as early as the 12t century, when the ceety wis foondit. The central pairt o Moscow grew bi consolidatin wi suburbs in line wi the medieval principles o urban development, when strang fortress waws wad gradually gird alang the circle streets o adjacent new settlements. The first circular defence waws set the trajectory o Moscow's rings, layin the grundwirk for futur toun-plannin o the Roushie caipital.

The follaein fortifications servit as the ceety's circular defence bundaries at some pynt in history: the Kremlin waws, Zemlyanoy Gorod (earthwirk toun), the Kamer-Kollezhsky Rampart, the Garden Ring, an the smaw railwey ring. The Moscow Automobile Ring Road (MKAD) haes been Moscow's bundary syne 1960. An aw in the form o a circle are the main Moscow subway line, the Ring Line, an the sae-cried Third Automobile Ring, which wis completit in 2005. Hence, the characteristic radial-circle plannin continues tae define Moscow's further development. Housomeivver, contemporary Moscow haes an aw engulft a nummer o territories ootside the MKAD, sic as Solntsevo, Butovo, an the toun o Zelenograd.

Aw admeenistrative okrugs an destricts hae thair awn coats o airms an flags as well as the heid offeecials.

In addition tae the destricts, thare are Territorial Units wi Special Status. This uisually include areas wi sma or nae permanent populations, sic as the case wi the All-Russia Exhibition Center, the Botanical Garden, lairge pairks, an industrial zones. In recent years, some territories hae been mergit wi different destricts. Thare are nae ethnic-specific regions in Moscow, as in the Cheenatouns that exist in some North American an East Asie ceeties. Awtho destricts are no designated bi income, as wi maist ceeties, those areas that are closer tae the city centre, metro stations or green zones are considered mair prestigious.[14]

Moscow an aw hosts some o the govrenment bodies o Moscow Oblast, awtho the city itsel is admeenistratively separate frae the oblast.[15]

Internaitional relations

[eedit | eedit soorce]

Twin touns — Sister ceeties

[eedit | eedit soorce]

Moscow is twinned wi the follaein ceeties:


[eedit | eedit soorce]
  1. Президент Российской Федерации. Указ №849 от 13 мая 2000 г. «О полномочном представителе Президента Российской Федерации в федеральном округе». Вступил в силу 13 мая 2000 г. Опубликован: "Собрание законодательства РФ", No. 20, ст. 2112, 15 мая 2000 г. (President of the Russian Federation. Decree #849 of May 13, 2000 On the Plenipotentiary Representative of the President of the Russian Federation in a Federal District. Effective as of May 13, 2000.).
  2. Госстандарт Российской Федерации. №ОК 024-95 27 декабря 1995 г. «Общероссийский классификатор экономических регионов. 2. Экономические районы», в ред. Изменения №5/2001 ОКЭР. (Gosstandart of the Russian Federation. #OK 024-95 December 27, 1995 Russian Classification of Economic Regions. 2. Economic Regions, as amended by the Amendment #5/2001 OKER. ).
  3. Comins-Richmond, Walter. "The History of Moscow". Occidental College. Archived frae the original on 17 Mey 2006. Retrieved 3 Julie 2006.
  4. "The Moscow Statute". Moscow City Duma. Moscow City Government. 28 Juin 1995. Archived frae the original on 23 August 2011. Retrieved 29 September 2010. The supreme and exclusive legislative (representative) body of the state power in Moscow is the Moscow City Duma.
  5. a b "The Moscow City Mayor". Government of Moscow. Archived frae the original on 23 August 2011. Retrieved 18 Mairch 2010.
  6. Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Federal State Statistics Service) (21 Mey 2004). "Территория, число районов, населённых пунктов и сельских администраций по субъектам Российской Федерации (Territory, Number of Districts, Inhabited Localities, and Rural Administration by Federal Subjects of the Russian Federation)". Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved 1 November 2011.CS1 maint: unrecognised leid (link)
  7. a b Roushie Federal State Stateestics Service (21 Mey 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population o Roushie, Its Federal Destricts, Federal Subjects, Destricts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Admeenistrative Centres, an Rural Localities wi Population o Ower 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [Aw-Roushie Population Census o 2002] (in Roushie).CS1 maint: ref=harv (link) CS1 maint: unrecognised leid (link)
  8. "26. Численность постоянного населения Российской Федерации по муниципальным образованиям на 1 января 2018 года". Roushie Federal State Stateestics Service. Retrieved 23 Januar 2019.
  9. "Об исчислении времени". Официальный интернет-портал правовой информации (in Russian). 3 Juin 2011. Retrieved 19 Januar 2019.CS1 maint: unrecognised leid (link)
  10. Offeecial ootthrou the Roushie Federation accordin tae Airticle 68.1 o the Constitution o Roushie.
  11. a b "Плотность населения Российской Федерации по субъектам Российской Федерации". Rosstat. 2010. Archived frae the original on 28 Julie 2011. Retrieved 30 September 2010.
  12. "Archived copy". Archived frae the original on 25 December 2018. Retrieved 27 Januar 2012.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  13. ""Российская газета" о мигрантах в Москве". Rg.ru. Retrieved 22 December 2010.
  14. "Цены на Квартиры в Москве по Административным Районам и Станциям Метро". Metrinfo.ru (in Russian). Retrieved 27 September 2010.CS1 maint: unrecognised leid (link)
  15. Accordin tae Airticle 24 o the Chairter o Moscow Oblast, the govrenment bodies o the oblast are locatit in the city o Moscow an throughout the territory of Moscow Oblast. Housomeivver, Moscow is no offeecially cried tae be the admeenistrative centre o the oblast.
  16. "Twin Towns". www.amazingdusseldorf.com. Archived frae the original on 17 October 2014. Retrieved 29 October 2009.
  17. "Sister Cities of Manila". 2008–2009 City Government of Manila. Archived frae the original on 6 August 2009. Retrieved 2 Julie 2009. freemit airtin in |publisher= (help)
  18. "Prague Partner Cities" (in Czech). 2009 Magistrát hl. m. Prahy. Retrieved 2 Julie 2009. freemit airtin in |publisher= (help)
  19. Moscow and Rejkjavik sister cities. Archived 2009-01-07 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved on 2008-03-11
  20. "Twinning Cities: International Relations" (PDF). Municipality of Tirana. www.tirana.gov.al. Archived frae the original (PDF) on 16 Februar 2008. Retrieved 23 Juin 2009.
  21. Twinning Cities: International Relations. Municipality of Tirana. www.tirana.gov.al. Retrieved on 2008-01-25.
  22. "Cooperation Internationale" (in French). © 2003–2009 City of Tunis Portal. Archived frae the original on 8 Mey 2008. Retrieved 31 Julie 2009.
  23. "Miasta partnerskie Warszawy". um.warszawa.pl. Biuro Promocji Miasta. 4 Mey 2005. Archived frae the original on 11 October 2007. Retrieved 29 August 2008.