Mongolie

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Mongolie
Монгол Улс
ᠮᠣᠩᠭ᠋ᠣᠯᠤᠯᠤᠰ
{{{coat_alt}}}
Emblem
Anthem: 

Location o  Mongolie  (red)
Location o  Mongolie  (red)
Caipital
and largest city
Ulaanbaatar[a]
Coordinates: 47°55′N 106°53′E / 47.917°N 106.883°E / 47.917; 106.883
Offeecial leids Mongolie
Offeecial scripts Mongolian Cyrillic
Mongolie script[1]
Ethnic groups (2010)
Releegion Buddhism (53%)
Islam (3%)
Shamanism (2,9%)
Christianity (2,2%)[2]
Demonym
Govrenment Unitar semi-presidential republic[3][4][5]
• Preses
Khaltmaagiin Battulga
Ukhnaagiin Khürelsükh
Legislatur State Great Khural
Formation
formed 209 BC
formed 1206
December 29, 1911
• Mongolie Fowkrepublic wis established
November 26, 1924
• Unthirldom wis recognised bi Republic o Cheenae
Januar 5, 1946
Februar 13, 1992
Aurie
• Total
1,566,000 km2 (605,000 sq mi) (18t)
• Water (%)
0.43[6]
Population
• 2016 estimate
3,081,677[7] (134t)
• Density
1.97[8]/km2 (5.1/sq mi) (238t)
GDP (PPP) 2015 estimate
• Total
$36.6 billion
• Per capita
$11,024
GDP (nominal) 2015 estimate
• Tot
$12.5 billion
• Per capita
$4,353
Gini (2011) 36.5[9]
medium
HDI (2014) Increase 0.727[10]
heich · 90th
Currency Tögrög (MNT)
Time zone UTC+7/+8[11]
• Summer (DST)
UTC+8/+9[12]
Date format yyyy.mm.dd (CE)
Drivin side richt
Cawin code +976
ISO 3166 code MN
Internet TLD .mn, .мон
  1. ^ An aa spelled "Ulan Bator".
  2. ^ "Mongolie" includes minorities sic as Kazakhs or Tuvans.

Mongolie (soondit /mənˈɡoli/; Mongolie: Монгол улс leeteral Mongol kintra/naition, ) is a laundlockit kintra in East an Central Asie. It haes mairches wi Roushie tae the north an the Fowkrepublic o Cheenae tae the sooth, east an wast. Awtho Mongolie disna share a mairch wi Kazakhstan, its wastren-maist pynt is anely a few kilometres fae Kazakhstan's eastren neb. Ulan Bator, the caipital an lairgest ceety, is hame tae aboot 38% o the indwallers. Mongolie's poleetical seestem is a pairliamentary republic.

The airts o whit is Mongolie haes been ruled bi monie nomadic empires, includin the Xiongnu, the Xianbei, the Rouran, the Gökturks, an ithers. The Mongol Empire wis foondit bi Genghis Khan in 1206. Efter the dounfaw o the Yuan Dynasty, the Mongols returnt tae thair fore-gane paiterns. In the 16t an 17t centuries, Mongolie came unner the influence o Tibetan Buddhism. At the end o the 17t century, maist o Mongolie haed been incorporatit intae the airts ruled bi the Qing Deenasty. Durin the dounfaw o the Qing Deenasty in 1911, Mongolie declared unthirldom, but haed tae warstle till 1921 for tae firmly estaiblish de-facto unthirldom, an till 1945 for tae gain internaitional recogneetion. As a affcome, it cam unner strang Roushie an Soviet influence: In 1924, the Mongolie Fowkrepublic wis declarit, an Mongolian poleetics stairtit tae follae the same paiterns as Soviet poleetics o the time. Efter the dounfaw o communist regimes in Eastren Europe at the hint-end o 1989, Mongolie haed its ain Democratic Revolution in early 1990, that led tae a mony-pairty seestem, a new constitution in 1992, an the - raither roch - transeetion tae a mercat economy.

Admeenistrative diveesions[eedit | eedit soorce]

Main airticles: Provinces o Mongolie an Destricts o Mongolie

Template:Clickable map o Mongolian provinces Mongolie is dividit intae 21 aimags (provinces), which are in turn dividit intae 329 sums (destricts). The caipital Ulaanbaatar is admeenistrated separately as a khot (municipality) wi provincial status. The aimags are:

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. "Official Documents to be in Mongolian Script". UB Post. June 21, 2011. Archived frae the oreeginal on November 1, 2011. Retrieved 2010-07-11. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 "Mongolia". World Factbook. CIA. Retrieved August 9, 2015. 
  3. Shugart, Matthew Søberg (September 2005). "Semi-Presidential Systems: Dual Executive and Mixed Authority Patterns" (PDF). Graduate School of International Relations and Pacific Studies. United States: University of California, San Diego. Archived frae the oreeginal (PDF) on August 19, 2008. Retrieved 21 February 2016. 
  4. Shugart, Matthew Søberg (December 2005). "Semi-Presidential Systems: Dual Executive And Mixed Authority Patterns" (PDF). French Politics. Palgrave Macmillan Journals. 3 (3): pp. 323–351. doi:10.1057/palgrave.fp.8200087. Retrieved 21 February 2016. Even if the president has no discretion in the forming of cabinets or the right to dissolve parliament, his or her constitutional authority can be regarded as 'quite considerable' in Duverger’s sense if cabinet legislation approved in parliament can be blocked by the people's elected agent. Such powers are especially relevant if an extraordinary majority is required to override a veto, as in Mongolia, Poland, and Senegal. 
  5. Odonkhuu, Munkhsaikhan (12 February 2016). "Mongolia: A Vain Constitutional Attempt to Consolidate Parliamentary Democracy". ConstitutionNet. International IDEA. Retrieved 21 February 2016. Mongolia is sometimes described as a semi-presidential system because, while the prime minister and cabinet are collectively responsible to the SGKh, the president is popularly elected, and his/her powers are much broader than the conventional powers of heads of state in parliamentary systems. 
  6. Official landuse balanse data (2007)[deid airtin]
  7. "National Statistical Office of Mongolia". UBSEG.GOV.MN. Archived frae the oreeginal on April 15, 2016. 
  8. 8.0 8.1 Apr 2016
  9. "Gini Index". World Bank. Retrieved March 2, 2011. 
  10. "2015 Human Development Report Statistical Annex" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 2015. p. 9. Retrieved December 14, 2015. 
  11. "Mongolia Standard Time is GMT (UTC) +8, some areas of Mongolia use GMT (UTC) +7". Time Temperature.com. Retrieved 2007-09-30. 
  12. "Clock changes in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia". timeanddate.com. Retrieved 2015-03-27.