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Mongol Empire

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The Mongol Empire (Mongolie: Aboot this soondМонголын Эзэнт Гүрэн , Mongolyn Ezent Güren or Их Монгол улс, Ikh Mongol Uls) wis a massive empire durin the 13t an 14t centuries. It spanned frae Eastren Europe athort Asia, an is commonly referred tae as the lairgest contiguous empire in the history o the warld. It emerged frae the unification o Mongol an Turkic tribes in modern day Mongolie unner the leadership o Genghis Khan, who wis proclaimed ruler o aw Mongols in 1206. The Empire then grew rapidly through invasions in aw direction. At its greatest extent, the Mongol Empire stretched frae the Danube tae the Sea o Japan an frae northren Siberie tae Camboja, coverin ower 33,000,000 km2 (12,741,000 sq mi),[1] 22% o the Earth's total land area, an held sway ower a population o ower 100 million fowk. It is aften identified as the "Mongol Warld Empire" because it spanned 6,000 mile[2] frae east tae wast in muckle o Eurasie.[3][4][5][6][7][8] As a result o the empire's conquests an politeecal an economic impact on maist o the Auld Warld, its wars wi ither great pouers in Africae, Asie an Europe ar also believed tae be an ancient warld war.[9][10] Unner the Mongols, new technologies, various commodities an ideologies wur disseminatit an exchanged across Eurasie.

The Empire began tae split follaein a succession war in 1260-1264, as there wis dispute as tae which o Genghis's grandchildren shoud become the next Great Khan. Pouer wis first taken through ane council bi Ariqboke, a grandson o Genghis bi his son Tolui; while anither council held bi his Ariqboke's brither Kublai Khan declared Kublai as Great Khan instead. Kublai successfully claimed the leadership frae Ariqboke, but descendants o ither o Genghis's sons (Jochi, Ogedei, an Chagatai) also vied for pouer, or assertit independence. The Golden Horde, ruled bi the clan o Genghis's son Jochi; an the Chagatai Khanate, foondit bi Genghis's son Chagatai, opposed Kublai's claim o leadership, an began tae split off frae the main Empire.[11][12] Civil war ensued, as Kublai sought, unsuccessfully, tae regain control o the Chagatayid an Ogedeid families. Bi the time o Kublai Khan's daith, the Mongol Empire haed fractured intae fower separate khanates or empires, each pursuin its awn separate interests an objectives: the Golden Horde khanate in the northwast, the Chagatai Khanate in the wast, the Ilkhanate in the soothwast, an the Empire o the Great Khan (Yuan dynasty), which wis based in modern-day Beijing.[13] It wis no till 1304, when aw Mongol khans submittit tae Kublai's successor, the Khagan Temür Öljeytü, that the Mongol warld again acknowledged a single paramount sovereign for the first time since 1259 - an even the late Khagans' authority restit on nothin like the same foondations as that o Genghis Khan an his first three successors.[14][15] When the native Cheenese owerthrew the Yuan Dynasty in 1368, the Mongol Empire finally dissolved.

Name[eedit | eedit soorce]

The Mongol Empire is translatit tae the Mongolian leid as "Mongolyn Ezent Guren" (Монголын эзэнт гүрэн) literally meanin "Mongols' Imperial Power" an "Ikh Mongol Uls" (Их Монгол улс) which leeterally means "Greater Mongol Naition/State." Genghis Khan named his nation "Ikh Mongol Uls" (Yekhe Mongol Ulus) when he wis proclaimed Emperor o the entire Mongols. The preamble o Güyük Khan's letter tae Pape Innocent IV ran: "Dalai Qaghan o the great Mongol naition (ulus).".[16] Later, Kublai Khan addit Dai Yuan tae the term, renamin "Dai Ön Mongol Ulus" (Great Yuan Mongol Nation) in 1271.[17]

Notes[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Robert Finlay - The Pilgrim Art: Cultures of Porcelain in World History, p.151
  2. Jared Diamond - Guns, Germs, and Steel, p.367
  3. Historical Dictionary of the Mongol World Empire, by Paul D. Buell
  4. The Mongols and Russia, by George Vernadsky
  5. The Delhi Sultanate: A political and military history, by Peter M. Jackson,
  6. The Mongol World Empire, 1206-1370, by John Andrew Boyle
  7. The History of China, by David Curtis Wright, p. 84
  8. The Early Civilization of China, by Yong Yap Cotterell, Arthur Cotterell, p. 223
  9. Genghis Khan and the making of the modern world by Jack Weatherford
  10. Mongols and Mamluks: The Mamluk-Ilkhanid War, 1260-1281 by Reuven Amitai-Preiss
  11. "The Islamic World to 1600: The Golden Horde". Archived frae the original on 13 November 2010. Retrieved 12 October 2010.
  12. Michael Biran, Qaidu and the Rise of the Independent Mongol State in Central Asia. The Curzon Press, 1997, ISBN 0-7007-0631-3
  13. The Cambridge History of China: Alien Regimes and Border States, p413
  14. Peter Jackson-The Mongols and the West, p.127
  15. Lubin, Nancy. "Rule of Timur". In Curtis.
  16. John Joseph Saunders - The history of the Mongol conquests, p.225
  17. Volker Rybatzki, Igor de Rachewiltz-The early mongols: language, culture and history, p.112.