Iceland

Frae Wikipedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Iceland
Ísland (Icelandic)
Anthem: "Lofsöngur"
Location o Iceland
Caipital
and largest city
Reykjavík
64°08′N 21°56′W / 64.133°N 21.933°W / 64.133; -21.933
Offeecial leid
an naitional leid
Icelandic
Ethnic groups (2016)
Releegion Kirk o Iceland[2]
Demonym Icelander
Govrenment Unitar pairlamentar republic
• Preses
Guðni Th. Jóhannesson
Bjarni Benediktsson
Legislatur Althingi
Formation
9t century
930–1262
1262–1814
1380–1944
5 Januar 1874
• Kinrick
1 December 1918
• Republic
17 Juin 1944
Aurie
• Total
102,775[3] km2 (39,682 sq mi) (106t)
• Water (%)
2.7
Population
• 1 Januar 2016 estimate
332,529[a] (172nt)
• Density
3.2/km2 (8.3/sq mi) (233rd)
GDP (PPP) 2017 estimate
• Total
$18 billion[4] (142nt)
• Per capita
$52,500[4] (18t)
GDP (nominal) 2017 estimate
• Tot
$23 billion[4]
• Per capita
$67,570[4] (6t)
Gini (2013) 24.00[5]
law · 2nt
HDI (2015) Increase 0.921[6]
verra heich · 9t
Currency Icelandic króna (ISK)
Time zone UTC+0 (WET)
Date format dd/mm/yyyy
Drivin side richt
Cawin code +354
Patron saunt Saunt Thorlak
Internet TLD .is
  1. ^ "Statistics Iceland: Key figures". Statistics Iceland. 1 January 2014. Retrieved 30 March 2014. 
  2. ^ "CIA – The World Factbook – Field Listing – Distribution of family income – Gini index". United States government. Retrieved 14 September 2008. 

Iceland (Icelandic: Ísland [ˈistlant])[7] is a Nordic island kintra in the North Atlantic, wi a population o 348,580 and an aurie o 103,000 km2 (40,000 sq mi), makkin it the maist sparsely populatit kintra in Europe.[8] The caipital an lairgest ceety is Reykjavík. Reykjavík an the surroondin auries in the soothwast o the kintra are hame tae ower twa-thirds o the population.

Iceland is volcanically an geologically active. The interior conseests o a plateau chairactereesit bi sand an lava fields, muntains, an glaciers, an mony glacial rivers flowe tae the sea throu the lawlands. Iceland is wairmed bi the Gulf Stream an haes a temperate climate, despite a heich latitude juist ootside the Arctic Circle. Its heich latitude an marine influence keep simmers chilly, wi maist o the archipelago haein a tundra climate.

Accordin tae the auncient manuscript Landnámabók, the settlement o Iceland begoud in 874 AD whan the Norse chieftain Ingólfr Arnarson becam the first permanent settler on the island.[9] In the follaein centuries, Norses, an tae a lesser extent ither Scandinavies, emigratit tae Iceland, bringin wi them thirls (i.e., sclaves or serfs) o Gaelic oreegin. The island wis govrened as an independent commonweel unner the Althing, ane o the warld's auldest functionin legislative assemmlies. Follaein a period o ceevil strife, Iceland accedit tae Norse rule in the 13t century. The establishment o the Kalmar Union in 1397 unitit the kinricks o Norawa, Denmark, an Swaden. Iceland sicweys follaed Norawa's integration tae that union an cam unner Dens rule, efter Swaden's secession frae that union in 1523. Awtho the Dens kinrick introduced Lutheranism forcefully in 1550, Iceland remeened a distant semi-colonial territory in that Dens institutions an infrastructurs war conspeecuous bi thair absence. In the wauk o the French Revolution an the Napoleonic Wars, Iceland's struggle for unthirldom teuk form an culminatit in untirldom in 1918 an the foondin o a republic in 1944. Till the 20t century, Iceland relied lairgely on subsistence fishin an agricultur, an wis amang the puirest kintra in Europe. Industrialisation o the fisheries an Marshall Plan aid follaein Warld War II brocht prosperity, an Iceland becam ane o the walthiest an maist developit naitions in the warld. In 1994, it becam a pairt o the European Economic Aurie, that forder diversifee'd the economy intae sectors sic as finance, biotechnology, an manufacturin.

Iceland haes a mercat economy wi relatively law taxes, compared tae ither OECD kintras.[10] It mainteens a Nordic social welfare seestem that provides universal heal care an tertiary eddication for its ceetizens.[11] Iceland ranks heich in economic, poleetical, an social stabeelity an equality. In 2016, it wis rankit as the nint maist developit kintra in the warld bi the Unitit Naitions' Human Development Index, an it ranks first on the Global Peace Index.[6] Iceland runs awmaist completely on renewable energy. Affectit bi the ongaein warldwide financial creesis, the naition's entire bankin seestem seestemically failed in October 2008, leadin tae a severe depression, substantial poleetical unrest, the Icesave dispute, an the institution o caipital controls. Some bankers war jyled.[12] Syne then, the economy haes made a signeeficant recovery, in lairge pairt due tae a surge in tourism.[13][14][15]

Icelandic cultur is foondit upon the naition's Scandinavian heritage. Maist Icelanders are descendants o Norse an Gaelic settlers. Icelandic, a North Germanic leid, is descendit frae Auld Wast Norse an is closely relatit tae Faroese an Wast Norse dialects. The kintra's cultural heritage includes tradeetional Icelandic cuisine, Icelandic leeteratur, an medieval sagas. Iceland haes the smawest population o ony NATO member an is the anerly ane wi na staundin airmy, wi a lichtly airmed coast gaird in chairge o defence.[16]

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. "Population by country of citizenship, sex and age 1 January 1998–2016". Reykjavík, Iceland: Statistics Iceland. Retrieved 27 January 2017. 
  2. "Constitution of Iceland". Government of Iceland. Retrieved 14 October 2014.  Section VI deals wi releegion an Airticle 62 states "The Evangelical Lutheran Church shall be the State Kirk in Iceland an, as sic, it shall be supportit an pertectit bi the State". In Scots this kirk is commonly cried the Kirk o Iceland.
  3. "Ísland er minna en talið var" (in Icelandic). RÚV. 26 February 2015. Retrieved 10 March 2015. 
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 "Iceland". International Monetary Fund. 
  5. "Gini coefficient of equivalised disposable income (source: SILC)". Eurostat Data Explorer. Retrieved 7 January 2013. 
  6. 6.0 6.1 "2016 Human Development Report" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 2016. Retrieved 21 March 2017. 
  7. Interinstitutional Style Guide of the European Union guidance on Iceland reading "Do not use 'Republic of Iceland'. Although this name is found in some documents, it does not have official status."
  8. "Statistics Iceland". Government. The National Statistical Institute of Iceland. 14 September 2008. Retrieved 14 September 2008. 
  9. Tomasson, Richard F. (1980). Iceland, the first new society. U of Minnesota Press. p. 63. ISBN 0-8166-0913-6. 
  10. "OECD Tax Database". Oecd.org. Archived frae the oreeginal on 25 January 2010. Retrieved 26 January 2010. 
  11. Ólafsson, Stefán (12 May 2004). "The Icelandic Welfare State and the Conditions of Children". borg.hi.is. Archived frae the oreeginal on 18 August 2005. Retrieved 22 April 2010. 
  12. Worstall, Tim. "If Iceland Can Jail Bankers For The Crash Then Why Can't America?". Forbes. 
  13. Greenstein, Tracey (20 February 2013). "Iceland's Stabilized Economy Is A Surprising Success Story". Forbes. Retrieved 11 April 2014. 
  14. Mingels, Guido (10 January 2014). "Out of the Abyss: Looking for Lessons in Iceland's Recovery". Der Spiegel. Retrieved 11 April 2014. 
  15. Bowers, Simon (6 November 2013). "Iceland rises from the ashes of banking collapse". The Guardian. Retrieved 11 April 2014. 
  16. The Military Balance 2014. The International Institute of Strategic Studies (IISS). 2014.