The Axis advance haltit in 1942 when Japan lost the creetical Battle o Midway, near Hawaii, an Germany wis defeatit in North Africae an then, decisively, at Stalingrad in the Soviet Union. In 1943, wi a series o German defeats on the Eastren Front, the Allied invasion o Italy which brocht aboot Italian surrender, an Allied victories in the Pacific, the Axis lost the initiative an undertook strategic retreat on aw fronts. In 1944, the Wastren Allies invaded German-occupied Fraunce, while the Soviet Union regained aw o its territorial losses an invadit Germany an its allies. During 1944 an 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asie in SouthCentral Cheenae an Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy an capturt key Wastren Pacific islands.
Warld War II altered the poleetical alignment an social structur o the warld. The Unitit Naitions (UN) wis established tae foster internaitional co-operation an prevent future conflicts. The victorious great powers—the United States, the Soviet Union, China, the United Kingdom, an Fraunce—became the permanent members o the Unitit Naotions Security Cooncil. The Soviet Union an the Unitit States emerged as rival superpouers, settin the stage for the Cauld War, which lastit for the next 46 years. Meanwhile, the influence o European great pouers waned, while the decolonisation o Asie an Africae began. Maist kintras whose industries haed been damaged moved towards economic recovery. Poleetical integration, especially in Europe, emerged as an effort tae end pre-war enmities an tae create a common identity.
↑23 August 1939, the USSR an Germany sign non-aggression pact, secretly dividin Eastren Europe intae spheres o influence. USSR armistice wi Japan 16 September 1939; invades Poland 17 September 1939; attacks Finland 30 September 1939; forcibly incorporates Baltic States Juin 1940; takes eastren Romanie 4 Julie 1940. 22 Juin 1941, USSR is invaded bi European Axis; USSR aligns wi kintras fichtin Axis.
↑Herman Van Rompuy, President of the European Council; José Manuel Durão Barroso, President of the European Commission (10 December 2012). "From War to Peace: A European Tale". Nobel Lecture by the European Union. Retrieved 4 January 2014.