Warld War II
Warld Weir II, or the Seicont Warld Weir (aften abbreviatit as WWII or WW2), wis a global weir that began in 1939 an endit in 1945. It involved the vast majority o the warld's naitions—includin aw o the great pouers—eventually forming twa opponin military alliances: the Allies an the Axis. It wis the maist widespread war in history, an directly involved mair nor 100 million fowk frae ower 30 countries. In a state o "tot war", the major participants threw thair entire economic, industrial, an scienteefic capabilities behind the war effort, erasin the distinction atween ceevilian an militar resoorces. Merked bi mass daiths o ceevilians, includin the Holocaust (during which approximately 11 million fowk war killed) an the strategic bombin o industrial an population centres (during which approximately ane million fowk war killed, includin the uise o twa nuclear weapons in combat), it resulted in an estimatit 50 million tae 85 million fatalities. These made Warld War II the deadliest conflict in human history.
The Empire o Japan aimed tae dominate Asie an the Pacific an wis already at war wi the Republic o Cheenae in 1937, but the warld war is generally said tae hae begun on 1 September 1939 wi the invasion o Poland bi Germany an subsequent declarations o war on Germany bi Fraunce an the Unitit Kinrick. Frae late 1939 tae early 1941, in a series o campaigns an treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much o continental Europe, an formed the Axis alliance wi Italy an Japan. Follaein the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, Germany an the Soviet Union pairteetioned an annexed territories o thair European neighbours, Poland, Finland, Romanie an the Baltic states. The Unitit Kinrick an the Breetish Commonweel war the anly Allied forces continuin the fecht against the European Axis pouers, wi campaigns in North Africae an the Horn o Africae as well as the lang-runnin Battle o the Atlantic. In Juin 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion o the Soviet Union, openin the lairgest land theatre o war in history, which trapped the major pairt o the Axis' military forces intae a war o attrition. In December 1941, Japan attacked the United States an European territories in the Paceefic Ocean, an quickly conquered much o the Wastren Pacific.
The Axis advance haltit in 1942 when Japan lost the creetical Battle o Midway, near Hawaii, an Germany wis defeatit in North Africae an then, decisively, at Stalingrad in the Soviet Union. In 1943, wi a series o German defeats on the Eastren Front, the Allied invasion o Italy which brocht aboot Italian surrender, an Allied victories in the Pacific, the Axis lost the initiative an undertook strategic retreat on aw fronts. In 1944, the Wastren Allies invaded German-occupied Fraunce, while the Soviet Union regained aw o its territorial losses an invadit Germany an its allies. During 1944 an 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asie in South Central Cheenae an Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy an capturt key Wastren Pacific islands.
The war in Europe endit wi an invasion o Germany bi the Wastren Allies an the Soviet Union culminatin in the captur o Berlin bi Soviet an Pols truips an the subsequent German uncondeetional surrender on 8 Mey 1945. Follaein the Potsdam Declaration bi the Allies on 26 Julie 1945 an the refusal o Japan tae surrender unner its terms, the Unitit States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese ceeties o Hiroshima an Nagasaki on 6 August an 9 August respectively. Wi an invasion o the Japanese airchipelago imminent, the possibility o addeetional atomic bombins, an the Soviet Union's declaration o war on Japan an invasion o Manchuria, Japan surrendered on 15 August 1945. Thus endit the war in Asie, cementin the tot victory o the Allies.
Warld War II altered the poleetical alignment an social structur o the warld. The Unitit Naitions (UN) wis established tae foster internaitional co-operation an prevent future conflicts. The victorious great powers—the United States, the Soviet Union, China, the United Kingdom, an Fraunce—became the permanent members o the Unitit Naotions Security Cooncil. The Soviet Union an the Unitit States emerged as rival superpouers, settin the stage for the Cauld War, which lastit for the next 46 years. Meanwhile, the influence o European great pouers waned, while the decolonisation o Asie an Africae began. Maist kintras whose industries haed been damaged moved towards economic recovery. Poleetical integration, especially in Europe, emerged as an effort tae end pre-war enmities an tae create a common identity.
Notes[eedit | eedit soorce]
- 23 August 1939, the USSR an Germany sign non-aggression pact, secretly dividin Eastren Europe intae spheres o influence. USSR armistice wi Japan 16 September 1939; invades Poland 17 September 1939; attacks Finland 30 September 1939; forcibly incorporates Baltic States Juin 1940; takes eastren Romanie 4 Julie 1940. 22 Juin 1941, USSR is invaded bi European Axis; USSR aligns wi kintras fichtin Axis.
- Efter the fall o the Third Republic in 1940, the de facto govrenment wis the Vichy Regime. It conductit pro-Axis policies till November 1942 while remainin formally neutral. The Free French Forces, based oot o Lunnon, wur recognized bi aw Allies as the offeecial govrenment in September 1944.
References[eedit | eedit soorce]
- Fitzgerald 2011, p. 4
- Hedgepeth & Saidel 2010, p. 16
- James A. Tyner (March 3, 2009). War, Violence, and Population: Making the Body Count. The Guilford Press; 1 edition. p. 49. ISBN 1-6062-3038-7.
- Sommerville 2011, p. 5.
- Barrett & Shyu 2001, p. 6.
- Axelrod, Alan (2007) Encyclopedia of World War II, Volume 1. Infobase Publishing. pp. 659.
- The UN Security Council, retrieved 15 May 2012
- Herman Van Rompuy, President of the European Council; José Manuel Durão Barroso, President of the European Commission (10 December 2012). "From War to Peace: A European Tale". Nobel Lecture by the European Union. Retrieved 4 January 2014.
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