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Vertical triband (reid, white, red) wi a reid maple leaf in the centre
Motto: "A Mari Usque Ad Mare" (Laitin)
"From Sea to Sea"
(As seen on the Arms of Canada)
Anthem: "O Canada"
Ryal anthem"God Save the Queen"[1]
Projection o North Americae wi Canadae in green
Caipital Ottawa
45°24′N 75°40′W / 45.400°N 75.667°W / 45.400; -75.667
Largest city Toronto
Offeecial leids
  • English
  • French
Recognisit regional leids
Ethnic groups
Demonym Canadian
Government Federal pairlamentary
constitutional monarchy[2]
 -  Monarch Elizabeth II
 -  Govrenor General David Johnston
 -  Prime Meenister Justin Trudeau
 -  Chief Juistice Beverley McLachlin
Legislatur Pairlament
 -  Upper hoose Senate
 -  Lawer hoose Hoose o Commons
Establishment frae the Unitit Kinrick
 -  Constitution Act, 1867 July 1, 1867 
 -  Statute o Wastmeenster December 11, 1931 
 -  Patriation Aprile 17, 1982 
 -  Total 9,984,670 km2 (2nt)
3,854,085 sq mi 
 -  Watter (%) 8.92 (891,163 km2 / 344,080 mi2)
 -  Q3 2015 estimate 35,851,774[3] (37t)
 -  2011 census 33,476,688[4]
 -  Densitie 3.41/km2 (228t)
8.3/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2015 estimate
 -  Total $1.628 trillion[5] (15t)
 -  Per capita $45,489[5] (20t)
GDP (nominal) 2015 estimate
 -  Total $1.573 trillion[5] (11th)
 -  Per capita $43,935[5] (15t)
Gini (2010) 33.7[6]
middlin · 103rdUNIQ--nowiki-0000001C-QINU7UNIQ--nowiki-0000001D-QINU
HDI (2013) Steady 0.902[8]
very heich · 8t
Currency Canadian dollar ($) (CAD)
Time zone (UTC−3.5 tae −8)
 -  Summer (DST)  (UTC−2.5 to −7)
Date format
  • dd-mm-yyyy
  • mm-dd-yyyy
  • yyyy-mm-dd (CE)
Drives on the right
Cawin code +1
Internet TLD .ca

Canadae is a kintra in North Americae, ane of the northrenmaist in the warld, an the mucklest kintra gaun bi area efter Roushie. It mairches the Unitit States an its watters eiks northart intil the Arctic Ocean tae the Nor' Powl.

Canadae is a federation o ten provinces an three territories. It wis first shapit bi the Breetish North America Act o 1867 an cried the "Dominion o Canadae". It is a pairlamentary representative democracy an is a constitutional monarchy wi Queen Elizabeth II as heid o state.

Canada's offeicial leids is Inglis an French. The French is spak feckly in Quebec (or Québec in French). Its offeicial estimate o indwallers for 2013 is 35,158,300 [9]

Provinces an territories[eedit | eedit soorce]

A geopolitical map o Canadae, exhibitin its ten provinces an three territories

Canadae is a federation composed o ten provinces an three territories;


Provinces hae more autonomy than territories. Each hae its ain provincial o territorial symbols.

The provinces are responsible for maist o Canadae's social programs (sic as health care, eddication, an welfar an thegether collect mair revenue than the federal govrenment, an almaist unique structuir amang federations in the Yird. Uisin its spendin powers, the federal govrenment can stert national policies in provincial airts, sic as the Canada Health Act; the provinces can opt oot o these but rarelie dae sae in practice. Equalisation payments are made bi the federal govrenment tae ensure that reasonablie uniform standards o services and taxation are kept atween the richer and puirer provinces.

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. D. Michael Jackson (Chief of protocol for the Government of Saskatchewan) (2013). The Crown and Canadian Federalism. Dundurn. p. 199. ISBN 978-1-4597-0989-8. 
  2. Hail, M; Lange, S (February 25, 2010). "Federalism and Representation in the Theory of the Founding Fathers: A Comparative Study of US and Canadian Constitutional Thought". Publius: the Journal of Federalism 40 (3): 366–388. doi:10.1093/publius/pjq001. 
  3. "CANSIM – 051-0005 – Estimates of population, Canada, provinces and territories". Statistics Canada. June 22, 2015. Retrieved June 22, 2015. 
  4. Statistics Canada (January 30, 2013). "Population and dwelling counts, for Canada, provinces and territories, 2011 and 2006 censuses". Retrieved December 2, 2013. 
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 [1].IMF country report[full citation needit]
  6. "GINI index". The World Bank. Retrieved October 23, 2014. 
  7. "Country Comparison: Distribution Of Family Income – Gini Index". World Factbook. CIA. Retrieved May 1, 2013. 
  8. "Table 1: Human Development Index and its components". UNDP. Retrieved October 5, 2014. 
  9. "Canada's total population estimates, 2013". Statistics Canada. Retrieved 17 November 2013.