Inglis leid

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Inglis leid
Spoken in:
54 kintras
Unitit Naitions
European Union
Commonwealth o Naitions
Total spaekers: First leid: 309–400 million

Seicont leid: 199–1,400 million
Overall: 500 million–1.8 billion



Leid codes
ISO 639-2 en
ISO 639-3 en

Inglis, English or Inglish (English) is a Wast Germanic leid that arose in the Anglo-Saxon kinricks o England an spread intae what wis tae become sooth-east Scotland unner the influence o the Anglian medieval kinrick o Northumbrie. Follaein the economic, political, military, scientific, cultural, an colonial influence o Great Breetain an the Unitit Kinrick frae the 18t century, via the Breetish Empire, an o the Unitit States since the mid-20t century,[1][2][3][4] it haes been widely dispersed aroond the warld, become the leadin leid o internaitional discourse, an haes acquired uise as lingua franca in mony regions.[5][6] It is widely learned as a seicont leid an uised as an offeecial leid o the European Union an mony Commonwealth kintras, as well as in mony warld organisations. It is the third maist natively spoken leid in the warld, efter Mandarin Cheenese an Spainyie.[7]

Historically, Inglish originatit frae the fusion o leids an dialects, nou collectively termed Auld Inglis, which wur brought tae the eastern coast o Great Breetain bi Germanic (Anglo-Saxon) settlers beginnin in the 5t century – wi the word "Inglis" being derived frae the name o the Angles.[8] A significant number o Inglis words are constructit based on roots frae Latin, because Latin in some form wis the lingua franca o the Christian Kirk an o European intellectual life.[9] The leid wis further influenced bi the Auld Norse leid wi Viking invasions in the 8t an 9t centuries.

The Norman conquest o Ingland in the 11t century gave rise tae hivy borrowings frae Norman-French, an vocabulary an spelling conventions began tae give the superficial appearance o a close relationship wi Romance leids[10][11] tae what haed nou become Middle Inglis. The Great Vowel Shift that began in the sooth o Ingland in the 15t century is ane o the historical events markin the separation o Middle an Modern Inglis.

Awin tae the significant assimilation o various European leids throughoot history, modern Inglis is aften seen as haein a vera lairge vocabulary. The Oxford Inglis Dictionary leets ower 250,000 distinct words, an does no include mony technical or slang terms, or words that belang tae multiple word classes.[12][13]

Etymology[eedit | eedit soorce]

The name "Inglis" comes frae the pairt o Germany an Denmark cried "Angeln". The spellin Inglis is a leeterar archaism frae aulder Scots that enthusiasts is gey fond o. It wis soondit [ɪŋ'lɪs] (cf. Scottis), wi time the is wis cuttit tae s an the modren ootcome wis [ɪŋ'(ə)lz] that can be seen in the faimly name wi the mair mensefu modren spellin Ingles. Maist fowk the nou says ['ɪŋlɪʃ], English, tho some fowk scrieves Inglish for fear that fowk micht soond the foregaun wrang. Mony fowk soonds Inglis ['ɪŋglɪs] efter the English soond-tae-letter spellin.

Significance[eedit | eedit soorce]

See an aa Inglis-speakin warld an Anglosphere.

Modern Inglis, sumtimes descrived as the first global lingua franca,[14][15] is the dominant leid or in some instances even the required internaitional leid o communications, science, information technology, business, aviation, entertainment, radio an diplomacy.[16] Its spread ayont the Breetish Isles began wi the growth o the Breetish Empire, an bi the late 19t century its reach wis truly global.[17] Follaein the Breetish colonisation o North Americae, it became the dominant leid in the Unitit States an in Canadae. The growing economic an cultural influence o the US an its status as a global superpouer since Warld War II hae significantly acceleratit the leid's spread across the planet.[15]

A working knowledge o Inglis haes become a requirement in a number o fields, occupations an professions such as medicine an computin; as a consequence ower a billion fowk speak Inglis tae at least a basic level (see Inglis leid learnin an teachin). It is ane o sax offeecial les o the Unitit Nations.

Ane impact o the growth o Inglis haes been tae reduce native linguistic diversity in mony parts o the warld, an its influence continues tae play an important role in leid attrition.[18] Conversely the natural internal variety o Inglis alang wi creoles an pidgins hae the potential tae produce new distinct leids frae Inglis ower time.[19]

Notes[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Ammon, pp. 2245–2247.
  2. Schneider, p. 1.
  3. Mazrui, p. 21.
  4. Howatt, pp. 127–133.
  5. Crystal, pp. 87–89.
  6. Wardhaugh, p. 60.
  7. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named ethnologue
  8. "English — Definition from the Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary". 2007-04-25. Retrieved 2010-01-02. 
  9. "Old English language — Latin influence". Retrieved 2010-01-02. 
  10. "Words on the brain: from 1 million years ago?". History of language. Retrieved 5 September 2010. 
  11. Albert C. Baugh & Thomas Cable (1978). "Latin Influences on Old English". An excerpt from Foreign Influences on Old English. Retrieved 5 September 2010. 
  12. "How many words are there in the English Language?". 
  13. Vista Worldwide Lanugage Statistics
  14. "Global English: gift or curse?". Retrieved 2005-04-04. 
  15. 15.0 15.1 David Graddol (1997). "The Future of English?" (PDF). The British Council. Retrieved 2007-04-15. 
  16. "The triumph o Inglish". The Economist. 2001-12-20. Retrieved 2007-03-26. (subscription needit)
  17. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named wwenglish
  18. Crystal, David (2002). Language Death. Cambridge University Press. doi:10.2277/0521012716. ISBN 0521012716. 
  19. Cheshire, Jenny (1991). English Around The World: Sociolinguistic Perspectives. Cambridge University Press. doi:10.2277/0521395658. ISBN 0521395658.