Germany

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Federal Republic o Germany
Bundesrepublik Deutschland
Banner o Germany
Coat o airms o Germany
Banner Coat o airms
Anthem: Deutschlandlied[1]
(Scots: "Sang o Germany")[lower-alpha 1]
Location o  Germany  (dark green)– on the European continent  (green & dark grey)– in the European Union  (green)  —  [Legend]
Location o  Germany  (dark green)

– on the European continent  (green & dark grey)
– in the European Union  (green)  —  [Legend]

Capital Berlin
52°31′N 13°23′E / 52.517°N 13.383°E / 52.517; 13.383
Lairgest ceety capital
Offeecial leids German[1][lower-alpha 2]
Demonym German
Govrenment Federal pairlamentary constitutional republic
• Preses
Frank-Walter Steinmeier
Angela Merkel
Legislatur
Bundesrat
Bundestag
Formation
2 Februar 962
8 Juin 1815
18 Januar 1871
23 Mey 1949
1 Januar 1958
3 October 1990
Aurie
• Tot
357,168 km2 (137,903 sq mi) (63rd)
Population
• 2014 estimate
81,083,600[2] (16t)
• Density
226/km2 (585.3/sq mi) (58t)
GDP (PPP) 2015 estimate
• Total
$3.815 trillion[3] (5t)
• Per capita
$46,896[3] (20t)
GDP (nominal) 2015 estimate
• Total
$3.413 trillion[3] (4t)
• Per capita
$41,955[3] (20t)
Gini (2011) 29.0[4]
law
HDI (2013) Steady 0.911[5]
very heich · 6t
Siller Euro () (EUR)
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
• Summer (DST)
CEST (UTC+2)
Drives on the right
Cawin code 49
Internet TLD .de an .eu

Germany (Listeni/ˈɜːrməni/; German: Deutschland, pronounced [ˈdɔʏtʃlant]), offeecially the Federal Republic o Germany (German: Bundesrepublik Deutschland, Aboot this soond listen ),[lower-alpha 4][6] is a federal pairlamentary republic in central-wastren Europe. It includes 16 constituent states, covers an aurie o 357,021 square kilometres (137,847 sq mi), an haes a lairgely temperate saisonal climate. Wi aboot 82 million indwallers, Germany is the maist populous member state o the European Union. Efter the Unitit States, it is the seicont maist popular immigration destination in the warld.[7][8] Germany's caipital an lairgest metropolis is Berlin, while its lairgest conurbation is the Ruhr (main centres: Dortmund an Essen). Ither major ceeties include Hamburg, Munich, Cologne, Frankfurt, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf an Leipzig.

Various Germanic tribes hae inhabitit the northren parts o modren Germany syne clessical antiquity. A region named Germanie wis documentit afore 100 AD. During the Migration Period the Germanic tribes expandit soothwart. Beginnin in the 10t century, German territories formed a central pairt o the Haly Roman Empire.[9] During the 16t century, northren German regions acame the centre o the Protestant Reformation.

In 1871, Germany acame a naition state when maist o the German states unified intae the Proushie-dominatit German Empire. Efter Warld War I an the German Revolution o 1918–1919, the Empire wis replaced bi the pairlamentary Weimar Republic. The establishment o the naitional socialist dictatorship in 1933 led tae Warld War II an the Holocaust. Efter a period o Allied occupation, twa German states war foondit: the Federal Republic o Germany (commonly kent as Wast Germany) an the German Democratic Republic (commonly kent as East Germany). In 1990, the kintra wis reunifee'd.[10]

In the 21st century, Germany is a great pouer an haes the warld's fowerth-lairgest economy bi nominal GDP, as well as the fift-lairgest bi PPP. As a global leader in several industrial an technological sectors, it is baith the warld's third-lairgest exporter an importer o guids. Germany is a developed kintra wi a very heich staundart o livin susteened bi a skilled an productive society. It uphaulds a social security an universal heal care seestem, environmental pertection an a tuition-free varsity eddication.[11]

Germany wis a foondin member o the European Union in 1993. It is pairt o the Schengen Aurie, an acame a co-foonder o the Eurozone in 1999. Germany is a member o the Unitit Naitions, NATO, the G8, the G20, an the OECD. The naitional militar expenditur is the 9t heichest in the warld. Kent for its rich cultural history, Germany haes been continuously the hame o influential airtists, filosofers, muisickers, sportsfowk, entrepreneurs, scientists, ingineers, an inventors.

Politics[eedit | eedit soorce]

German Pairlament haes twa chambers:

Federal states[eedit | eedit soorce]

Main article: States o Germany

Germany haes 16 federal states:

Notes[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Only the third stanza o the sang is usit as the naitional anthem.
  2. Dens, Law German, Sorbian, Romany, an Frisian are recognised bi the European Charter for Regional or Minority Leids
  3. European Union syne 1993.
  4. IPA transcription o "Bundesrepublik Deutschland": [ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant]

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. "Germany". CIA World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 30 August 2014. 
  2. Official estimate
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 "Germany". International Monetary Fund. April 2015. Retrieved 2 November 2014. 
  4. "Gini coefficient of equivalised disposable income (source: SILC)". Eurostat Data Explorer. Retrieved 13 August 2013. 
  5. "2014 Human Development Report Summary" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 2014. pp. 21–25. Retrieved 27 July 2014. 
  6. Mangold, Max, ed. (1995). Duden, Aussprachewörterbuch (in German) (6th ed.). Dudenverlag. pp. 271, 53f. ISBN 978-3-411-20916-3. 
  7. "Germany Top Migration Land After U.S. in New OECD Ranking". Bloomberg. 20 May 2014. Retrieved 29 August 2014. 
  8. "Trends in International Migrant Stock: The 2015 Revision". United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. 2015. 
  9. The Laitin name Sacrum Imperium (Haly Empire) is documentit as far back as 1157. The Laitin name Sacrum Romanum Imperium (Haly Roman Empire) wis first documentit in 1254. The full name "Haly Roman Empire o the German Naition" (Heiliges Römisches Reich Deutscher Nation) dates back tae the 15t century.
    Zippelius, Reinhold (2006) [1994]. Kleine deutsche Verfassungsgeschichte: vom frühen Mittelalter bis zur Gegenwart [Brief German Constitutional History: from the Early Middle Ages to the Present] (in German) (7th ed.). Beck. p. 25. ISBN 978-3-406-47638-9. 
  10. The Lost German East. 
  11. "How US students get a university degree for free in Germany". BBC. 3 June 2015. Retrieved 13 November 2015.