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Federal Republic o Germany

Bundesrepublik Deutschland
(Scots: "Sang o Germany")[a]
Location o  Germany  (dark green) – on the European continent  (green & dark grey) – in the European Union  (green)  —  [Legend]
Location o  Germany  (dark green)

– on the European continent  (green & dark grey)
– in the European Union  (green)  —  [Legend]

and largest city
52°31′N 13°23′E / 52.517°N 13.383°E / 52.517; 13.383
Offeecial leidsGerman[1][b]
GovrenmentFederal pairlamentary constitutional republic
• Preses
Frank-Walter Steinmeier
Olaf Scholz
Robert Habeck
2 Februar 962
8 Juin 1815
18 Januar 1871
23 Mey 1949
1 Januar 1958
3 October 1990
• Total
357,168 km2 (137,903 sq mi) (63rd)
• 2019-09-30 estimate
Increase 83,149,300[2] (19t)
• Density
232/km2 (600.9/sq mi) (58t)
GDP (PPP)2019 estimate
• Total
$4.444 trillion[3] (5t)
• Per capita
$52,559[3] (16t)
GDP (nominal)2019 estimate
• Tot
$3.863 trillion[3] (4t)
• Per capita
$46,653[3] (16t)
Gini (2018)negative increase 31.1[4]
HDI (2018)Increase 0.939[5]
verra heich · 4t
CurrencyEuro () (EUR)
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
• Summer (DST)
Drivin sideright
Cawin code49
ISO 3166 codeDE
Internet an .eu
Territorial organization

Germany (German: Deutschland, pronounced [ˈdɔʏtʃlant] ( listen)), offeecially the Federal Republic o Germany (German: Bundesrepublik Deutschland, Aboot this soondlisten ),[d][6] is a federal pairlamentary republic in central-wastren Europe. It includes 16 constituent states, covers an area o 357,021 square kilometre (137,847 sq mi), an haes a maistly temperate saisonal climate. Wi aboot 82 million inhabitants, Germany is the maist populous member state o the European Union. Efter the Unitit States, it is the saicont maist popular immigration destination in the warld.[7][8] Germany's caipital an lairgest metropolis is Berlin, while its mucklest conurbation is the Ruhr (main centres: Dortmund an Essen). Ither major toons include Hamburg, Munich, Cologne, Frankfurt, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf an Leipzig.

Various Germanic tribes hae inhabitit the northren pairts o modren Germany syne clessical antiquity. A region named Germanie wis documentit afore 100 AD. During the Migration Period the Germanic tribes expandit soothwart. Beginnin in the 10t century, German territories formed a central pairt o the Haly Roman Empire.[9] During the 16t century, northren German regions becam the centre o the Protestant Reformation.

In 1871, Germany becam a nation state whan maist o the German states unified intae the Proushie-dominatit German Empire. Efter Warld War I an the German Revolution o 1918–1919, the Empire wis replaced bi the pairlamentary Weimar Republic. The establishment o the naitional socialist dictatorship in 1933 led tae Warld War II an the Holocaust. Efter a period o Allied occupation, twa German states wis foondit: the Federal Republic o Germany (commonly kent as Wast Germany) an the German Democratic Republic (commonly kent as East Germany). In 1990, the kintra wis reunifee'd.[10]

In the 21st century, Germany is a great pouer an haes the warld's fowerth-lairgest economy bi nominal GDP, as weel as the fift-lairgest bi PPP. As a global leader in several industrial an technological sectors, it is baith the warld's third-lairgest exporter an importer o guids. Germany is a developit kintra wi a gey an heich staundart o livin susteened bi a skilled an productive society. It uphaulds a social security an universal heal care seestem, environmental pertection an a tuition-free varsity eddication.[11]

Germany wis a foondin member o the European Union in 1993. It is pairt o the Schengen Area, an becam a co-foonder o the Eurozone in 1999. Germany is a member o the Unitit Naitions, NATO, the G8, the G20, an the OECD. The naitional militar expenditur is the 9t heichest in the warld. Kent fir its rich cultural history, Germany haes been continuously the hame o influential airtists, philosophers, muisickers, sportsfowk, entrepreneurs, scientists, ingineers, an inventors.

Politics[eedit | eedit soorce]

German Pairlament haes twa chambers:

Federal states[eedit | eedit soorce]

Germany haes 16 federal states:

Notes[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Only the third stanza o the sang is usit as the naitional anthem.
  2. Dens, Law German, Sorbian, Romany, an Frisian are recognised bi the European Charter for Regional or Minority Leids
  3. European Union syne 1993.
  4. IPA transcription o "Bundesrepublik Deutschland": [ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant]

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. "Germany". CIA World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Archived frae the original on 11 Februar 2016. Retrieved 30 August 2014.
  2. "Bevölkerung nach Geschlecht und Staatsangehörigkeit". Destatis. Archived frae the original on 23 August 2019. Retrieved 15 Julie 2018.
  3. a b c d "World Economic Outlook Database, October 2019". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 9 Mairch 2020.
  4. "Gini coefficient of equivalised disposable income". Eurostat. Archived frae the original on 20 Mairch 2019. Retrieved 14 October 2019.
  5. "Human Development Report 2019". United Nations Development Programme. 10 December 2019. Archived (PDF) frae the original on 22 Mairch 2017.
  6. Mangold, Max, ed. (1995). Duden, Aussprachewörterbuch (in German) (6th ed.). Dudenverlag. pp. 271, 53f. ISBN 978-3-411-20916-3.
  7. "Germany Top Migration Land After U.S. in New OECD Ranking". Bloomberg. 20 Mey 2014. Retrieved 29 August 2014.
  8. "Trends in International Migrant Stock: The 2015 Revision". United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. 2015.
  9. The Laitin name Sacrum Imperium (Haly Empire) is documentit as far back as 1157. The Laitin name Sacrum Romanum Imperium (Haly Roman Empire) wis first documentit in 1254. The full name "Haly Roman Empire o the German Naition" (Heiliges Römisches Reich Deutscher Nation) dates back tae the 15t century.
    Zippelius, Reinhold (2006) [1994]. Kleine deutsche Verfassungsgeschichte: vom frühen Mittelalter bis zur Gegenwart (English translation: Brief German Constitutional History: from the Early Middle Ages to the Present) (in German) (7th ed.). Beck. p. 25. ISBN 978-3-406-47638-9.
  10. The Lost German East.
  11. "How US students get a university degree for free in Germany". BBC. 3 Juin 2015. Retrieved 13 November 2015.