German Empire

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German Empire

Deutsches Reich
1871–1918
Horizontal tricolor (black, white, reid)
Banner
Shield containin a black, ane-heidit, richtward-leuking eagle wi reid beak, tongue an claws. On its breast is a shield wi anither eagle. Ower its heid is an imperial croun wi twa crossin ribbons.
Imperial Coat o airms
Motto: Gott mit uns
"God wi us"
Anthem(none offeecial)
"Heil dir im Siegerkranz" (Imperial)
"Deutschlandlied" (popular)
"Die Wacht am Rhein" (Unoffeecial)
Locatit in north central Europe, containin modren Germany plus much o modren Poland
Territory o the German Empire in 1914, afore Warld War I
CaipitalBerlin
Common leidsOffeecial leid:
German
Unoffeecial minority leids:
Danish, French, Yiddish, Sorbian, Polish, Frisian, Lithuanie
Colonial leids: Bantu, Oshiwambo, Afrikaans, Swahili
(African colonies) Tsingtao Chinese an Mandarin Cheenese
(Tsingtao an Kiautschou Bay)
Papuan leids (German New Guinea)
Samoan
(German Samoa)
Releegion
Protestant ≈ 60%
Roman Catholic ≈ 39%
Jewish ≈ 1%
GovrenmentFederal monarchy
Emperor 
• 1871–1888
Wilhelm I
• 1888
Frederick III
• 1888–1918
Wilhelm II
Chancellor 
• 1871–1890
Otto von Bismarck (first)
• 1918
Friedrich Ebert (last)
LegislaturReichstag
• Federal Cooncil
Bundesrat
Historical eraNew Imperialism, WWI
18 Januar 1871
16 Aprile 1871
28 Julie 1914
9 November 1918
• Armistice
11 November 1918
18 November 1918
28 Juin 1919
Aurie
1910540,857.54 km2 (208,826.26 sq mi)
Population
• 1871
40050790
• 1890
49428470
• 1910
64925993
CurrencyVereinsthaler,
Sooth German Gulden, Bremen Thaler,
Hamburg Mark,
French Franc,
(till 1873, thegither)
German Goldmark,
(1873–1914)
German Papiermark
(1914–1918)
ISO 3166 codeDE
Precedit bi
Succeedit bi
Kinrick o Proushie
North German Confederation
Kinrick o Bavarie
Kinrick o Württemberg
Grand Duchy o Baden
Grand Duchy o Hesse
Alsace-Lorraine
Weimar Republic
Republic o Alsace-Lorraine
Free Ceety o Danzig
Seicont Polish Republic
Klaipėda Region
Saar (League o Naitions)
Hlučín Region
Northren Schleswig
Eupen-Malmedy
The day pairt o Belgium
 Czech Republic
 Denmark
 Fraunce
 Germany
 Lithuanie
 Poland
 Roushie
Aurie an population nae including colonial possessions
Aurie soorce:[1] Population soorce:[2]
^ a. The term "reich" daes nae leeterally connote an empire as haes been commonly assumed bi Inglis-speakin fowk. The term "Kaiserreich" literally denotes an empire – particularly a hereditary empire led by a literal emperor, though "reich" has been uised in German tae denote the Roman Empire acause it haes a weak hereditary tradeetion. In the case o the German Empire, the offeecial name wis Deutsches Reich that is properly translatit as "German Realm" acause the offeecial poseetion o heid o state in the constitution o the German Empire wis offeecially a "presidency" o a confederation o German states led bi the Keeng o Proushie who would assume "the title o German Emperor" as referrin tae the German fowk but wis nae emperor o Germany as in an emperor o a state.[3][neutrality is disputit]

The German Empire (German: Deutsches Kaiserreich) is the common name gien tae the state offeecially named Deutsches Reich[4] (literally: "German Realm"[5][6][7]), designatin Germany frae the unification o Germany an proclamation o Wilhelm I as German Emperor on 18 Januar 1871, tae 1918, whan it acame a federal republic efter defeat in Warld War I an the abdication o the Emperor, Wilhelm II.

The German Empire consistit o 27 constituent territories (maist o them ruled bi ryal faimilies). While the Kinrick o Proushie contained maist o the population an maist o the territory o the Reich, the Prussian leadership acame supplantit bi German leaders an Proushie itself played a lesser role. As Dwyer (2005) pynts oot, Proushie's "political and cultural influence had diminished considerably" bi the 1890s.[8] Its three lairgest neighbours wur rivals Imperial Roushie tae the east, Fraunce tae the wast an ally Austrick-Hungary tae the sooth.

Efter 1850, Germany industrialized rapidly, wi a foondation in coal, airn (an later steel), chemicals an railways. Frae a population o 41 million fowk in 1871, it grew tae 68 million in 1913. Frae a hivily rural naition in 1815, it wis nou predominantly urban.[9] Durin its 47 years o existence, the German Empire operatit as an industrial, technological an scienteefic giant, receivin mair Nobel Prizes in science than Breetain, Fraunce, Roushie an the Unitit States combined.[10]

It acame a great pouer,[11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19] boastin a rapidly growin economy an the warld's strangest airmy an its navy went frae bein negligible tae seicont anly behind the Ryal Navy in less nor a decade. Efter the removal o the pouerful Chancellor Otto von Bismarck in 1890 followin the daith o Emperor Wilhelm I, the young Emperor Wilhelm II engaged in increasinly reckless foreign policies that left the Empire isolatit. Its network o smaa colonies in Africae an the Paceefic paled in comparison tae the Breetish an French empires. When the great crisis o 1914 arrived, it haed anly twa weak allies (Austrick-Hungary an Ottoman Empire) left. In Warld War I its plans tae quickly captur Paris in 1914 failed an the Wastren Front (against Breetain an Fraunce) acame a stalemate. The Allied naval blockade made for increasin shortages o fuid. Houiver, Germany, as a result o the Communists' determination tae end Roushie involvement in Warld War I, carved lairge Eastren territories follaein the Treaty o Brest-Litovsk. German declaration o unrestrictit submarine warfare in early 1917 wis designed tae strangle the Breetish; it failed acause o the uise o a trans-Atlantic convoy seestem. But the declaration - alang wi the Zimmermann Telegram - did bring the Unitit States intae the war, wi its lairge reserves o money, fuid, an soldiers. Meanwhile German troops haed acome radicalised bi the Roushie Revolution. The heich command unner Paul von Hindenburg an Erich Ludendorff increasinly controlled the Reich as thay gambled on ane last offensive in ware 1918 (afore the Americans coud arrive in force). It failed an bi October the airmies wur in retreat, the Austro-Hungarie Empire haed collapsed, an the German fowk haed lost faith in the poleetical seestem. The Empire collapsed owernicht in the November 1918 Revolution as aw the ryals abdicatit an a republic teuk ower.

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. "German Empire: administrative subdivision and municipalities, 1900 tae 1910" (in German). Retrieved 25 April 2007. 
  2. "Population statistics of the German Empire, 1871" (in German). Retrieved 25 April 2007. 
  3. Harper's magazine, Volume 63. Pp. 593.
  4. "German constitution of 1871" (in (in German)). De.wikisource.org. 16 March 2011. Retrieved 2 April 2011. 
  5. Harper's magazine, Volume 63. Pp. 593. The term "reich" does not literally connote an empire as has been commonly assumed by English-speaking people, the term "Kaiserreich" literally denotes an empire – particularly a hereditary empire led by a literal emperor, though "reich" has been used in German tae denote the Roman Empire because it has a weak hereditary tradition. In the case of the German Empire, the official name was Deutsches Reich that is properly translated as "German Realm" because the official position of head of state in the constitution of the German Empire was officially a "presidency" of a confederation of German states led by the Keeng o Proushie who would assume "the title of German Emperor" as referring tae the German fowk but was not emperor of Germany as in an emperor of a state.
  6. World Book, Inc. The World Book dictionary, Volume 1. World Book, Inc., 2003. Pp. 572. States that Deutsches Reich translates as "German Realm" that was a former official name of the Germany.
  7. Joseph Whitaker. Whitaker's almanack, 1991. J Whitaker & Sons, 1990. Pp. 765. Refers tae the term Deutsches Reich being translated in English as "German Realm", up tae and including the Nazi period.
  8. Philip G. Dwyer, Modern Prussian History, 1830–1947 (2005) p 2
  9. J. H. Clapham, The Economic Development of France and Germany 1815–1914 (1936)
  10. "Nobel Prizes by Country - Evolution of National Science Nobel Prize Shares in the 20th Century, by Citizenship (Juergen Schmidhuber, 2010)". Idsia.ch. Retrieved 2 December 2012. 
  11. McCarthy, Justin (1880). A History of Our Own Times, from 1880 tae the Diamond Jubilee. New York, United States of America: Harper & Brothers, Publishers. pp. 475–476.
  12. Dallin, David (2006-11-30). The Rise of Russia in Asia. Read Books. ISBN 978-1-4067-2919-1.
  13. "Project MUSE - The German Empire: an Empire?". Muse.jhu.edu. Retrieved 2013-01-30. 
  14. pp.13
  15. "Evolution of the German Empire, German Empire as a World Power, Nationalism in German Empire". Bbgerman.com. Retrieved 2013-01-30. 
  16. "Otto von Bismarck – the greatest leader of all time?". Military-history.org. 2010-10-05. Retrieved 2013-01-30. 
  17. The "Essential World History: Since 1500" by William J. Duiker and Jackson J. Spielvogel, pp. 479
  18. "Bismarck and the German Empire, 1871-1918" by Lynn Abrams, pp. 5
  19. "Eric Voegelin and the Foundations of Modern Political Science" by Barry Cooper and Eric Voegelin, pp. 47

Freemit airtins[eedit | eedit soorce]

Karte Deutsches Reich, Verwaltungsgliederung 1900-01-01.png

(in German)