The Germans (German: Deutsche) are a Germanic ethnic group native tae Central Europe. The Inglis/Scots term Germans haes referred tae the German-speakin population o the Holy Roman Empire syne the Late Middle Ages. Legally, Germans are ceetizens o the Federal Republic o Germany.
O approximately 100 million native speakers o German in the warld, aboot 66–75 million consider thairsels Germans. Thare are an additional 80 million fowk o German ancestry mainly in the Unitit States, Brazil, Canadae, Argentinae, Fraunce, Roushie, Chile, Poland, Australie an Romanie (who maist likely are no native speakers o German). Sicweys, the tot nummer o Germans warldwide lees atween 66 an 160 million, dependin on the criteria appleed (native speakers, single-ancestry ethnic Germans, pairtial German ancestry, etc.).
The day, fowks frae kintras wi a German-speakin majority or significant German-speakin population groups ither than Germany, sic as Austrick, Swisserland, Liechtenstein an Luxembourg, hae developit thair awn naitional identity an uisually dae no refer tae thairsels as "Germans" in a modren context.
Leid[eedit | eedit soorce]
The native leid o Germans is German, a Wast Germanic leid, relatit tae an classifeed alangside Inglis an Dutch, an sharin mony similarities wi the North Germanic or Scandinavie leids. Spoken bi approximately 100 million native speakers, German is ane o the warld's major leids an the maist widely spoken first leid in the European Union.
Dialects[eedit | eedit soorce]
- Heich German
- Upper German
- Bavaries (ca. 10 million) form the Austro-Bavarie linguistic group, thegither wi those Austrians who speak German an dae no live in Vorarlberg an the wastren Tyrol destrict o Reutte. Swabians (ca. 10 million) form the Alemannic group, thegither wi the Alemannic Swiss, Liechtensteiners, Alsatians an Vorarlbergians.
- Central German dialect group (ca. 45 million)
- Wast Central German
- Central Franconie (Ripuarian, Kölsch), forms a dialectal unity wi Luxembourgis, Rhine Franconie(Hessian)
- East Central German
- Wast Central German
- Yiddish, a Heich German leid o Ashkenazi Jewish oreegin, spoken throughoot the warld. It developit as a fusion o German dialects wi Ebreu, Slavic leids an traces o Romance leids.
- Upper German
- Law German (ca. 3–10 million), forms a dialectal unity wi Dutch Law Saxon
Native speakers[eedit | eedit soorce]
Global distribution o native speakers o the German leid:
|Kintra||German speakin population (ootside Europe)|
|Canadae||450,000 – 620,000|
|Sooth Africae||75,000 (German expatriate ceetizens)|
|Namibie||30,000 (German expatriate ceetizens)|
Geographic distribution[eedit | eedit soorce]
Ethnic Germans form an important minority group in several kintras in central an eastren Europe—(Poland, Hungary, Romanie, Roushie) as well as in Namibie (German Namibie), Brazil (German Brazilian) (approx. 3% o the population), Argentinae (German Argentine) (1,5% ~ 7,5% o the population) an Chile (German-Chilean) (approx. 1% o the population).
Some groups mey be classifeed as Ethnic Germans despite nae langer haein German as thair mither tongue or belangin tae a destinct German cultur. Till the 1990s, twa million Ethnic Germans livit throughoot the umwhile Soviet Union, pairticularly in Roushie an Kazakhstan.
In the Unitit States 1990 census, 57 million fowk wur fully or pairtly o German ancestry, formin the lairgest single ethnic group in the kintra. States wi the heichest percentage o Americans o German strynd are in the northren Midwast (especially Wisconsin, Minnesota, North Dakota, Sooth Dakota, Nebraska, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan) an the Mid-Atlantic state, Pennsylvania. But Germanic immigrant enclaves existit in mony ither states (e.g., the German Texans an the Denver, Colorado aurie) an tae a lesser extent, the Paceefic Northwast (i.e. Idaho, Montana, Oregon an Washington state).
Notable Ethnic German minorities exist in ither Anglosphere kintras sic as Canadae (approx. 10% o the population) an Australie (approx. 4% o the population) an aw. As in the Unitit States, maist fowk o German strynd in Canadae an Australie hae amaist completely assimilatit, culturally an linguistically, intae the Inglis-speakin mainstream.
Distribution o German ceetizens an fowk claimin German ancestry:
References[eedit | eedit soorce]
- ↑ Germans and foreigners with an immigrant background Archived 2009-05-04 at the Wayback Machine. 156 is the estimate which counts all people claiming ethnic German ancestry in the U.S., Brazil, Argentina, and elsewhere.
- ↑ a b 66.42 million is the number of Germans without immigrant background, 75 million is the number of German citizens Germans and foreigners with an immigrant background Archived 2009-05-04 at the Wayback Machine
- ↑ "Deutsche Welle: 2005 German Census figures". Dw-world.de. Retrieved 28 September 2011.
- ↑ "CIA World Factbook – Germany: People". Cia.gov. Archived frae the original on 11 Februar 2016. Retrieved 28 September 2011.
- ↑ a b "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived frae the original (PDF) on 27 September 2011. Retrieved 10 Julie 2012.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- ↑ alangside the slichtly earlier term Almayns; John o Trevisa's 1387 translation o Ranulf Higdon's Polychronicon haes: Þe empere passede from þe Grees to þe Frenschemen and to þe Germans, þat beeþ Almayns. Durin the 15t an 16t centuries, Dutch wis the adjective uised in the sense "pertainin tae Germans". Uise o German as an adjective dates tae ca. 1550. The adjective Dutch narraeed its sense tae "o the Netherlands" durin the 17t century.
- ↑ (in Spaingie) Hablantes del alemán en el mundo Archived 2012-03-20 at the Wayback Machine
- ↑ "Most Widely Spoken Languages". .ignatius.edu. 28 Mey 2011. Archived frae the original on 27 September 2011. Retrieved 28 September 2011.
- ↑ "Ethnologue: East Middle German". Retrieved 6 Mairch 2011.
- ↑ Introduction to Old Yiddish literature, p. 72, Baumgarten and Frakes, Oxford University Press, 2005
- ↑ "Development of Yiddish over the ages", www.jewishgen.org
- ↑ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Handwörterbuch des politischen Systems der Bundesrepublik (in German). Source lists "German expatriate citizens" only for Namibia and South Africa!
- ↑ "Statistics Canada 2006". 2.statcan.ca. 6 Januar 2010. Archived frae the original on 25 December 2018. Retrieved 15 Mairch 2010.
- ↑ a b "Composición Étnica de las Tres Áreas Culturales del Continente Americano al Comienzo del Siglo XXI" (PDF) (in Spanish). p. 188. Archived frae the original (PDF) on 24 Februar 2014. Retrieved 12 Juin 2012.CS1 maint: unrecognised leid (link)
- ↑ Bolivian Reforms Raise Anxiety on Mennonite Frontier, New York Times
- ↑ Los Menonitas en Bolivia CNN México/CNN en Español
- ↑ "The Mennonite Old Colony Vision: Under siege in Mexico and the Canadian Connection" (PDF). Archived frae the original (PDF) on 4 Apryle 2013. Retrieved 30 Mey 2007.
- ↑ "A Imigração Alemã| Brasil | Deutsche Welle | 14.01.2010". Passeiweb.com. 6 Januar 1990. Archived frae the original on 15 Julie 2011. Retrieved 28 September 2011.
- ↑ "Obsevatorio de Colectividades – Comunidad Alemana". Buenosaires.gob.ar. Retrieved 28 September 2011.
- ↑ German-Argentine Descendants of Germans in Argentina
- ↑ a b Oliver Zoellner. "Oliver Zoellner | Generating Samples of Ethnic Minorities in Chile". Research-worldwide.de. Retrieved 28 September 2011.
- ↑ 49.2 million German Americans as o 2005 accordin tae the "US demographic census". Archived frae the original on 3 Apryle 2009. Retrieved 2 August 2007. Unknown parameter
|author=suggested) (help); see an aw Leids in the Unitit States#German.
- ↑ "A Imigração Alemã no Brasil | Brasil | Deutsche Welle | 25.07.2004". Passeiweb.com. 6 Januar 1990. Archived frae the original on 15 Julie 2011. Retrieved 28 September 2011.
- ↑ 2001 Canadian Census Archived 2013-04-09 at the Wayback Machine gives 2,742,765 total respondents stating their ethnic origin as partly German, with 705,600 stating "single-ancestry", see List of Canadians by ethnicity.
- ↑ "Germans in South Africa". Webcitation.org. Archived frae the original on 20 October 2009. Retrieved 28 September 2011.
- ↑ Professor JA Heese in his book Die Herkoms van die Afrikaner (The Origins of Afrikaners) claims the modern Afrikaners (who total around 3.5 million) have 34.4% German heritage. How 'Pure' was the Average Afrikaner? Archived 2012-10-13 at the Wayback Machine
- ↑ ~3,000,000 Including Volga Germans, and other German ancestries
- ↑ "597,212 in Russia as of 2002, 0.4 of Russian population". Archived frae the original on 24 Januar 2012. Retrieved 13 Julie 2012.
- ↑ Vladimir Geroimenko. "France". Ling.gu.se. Retrieved 28 September 2011.
- ↑ "Alsatians". Everyculture.com. 16 Januar 2010. Retrieved 28 September 2011.
- ↑ The Australian Bureau of Statistics PDF (424 KB) reports 742,212 people of German ancestry in the 2001 Census. German is spoken by ca. 135,000 , about 105,000 of them Germany-born, see Demographics of Australia
- ↑ "Archived copy". Archived frae the original on 19 Julie 2011. Retrieved 13 Julie 2012.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- ↑ South Tyrol in figures. Provincial Statistics Institute.
- ↑ 378,947 (2010, 2.3% o Dutch population). cbs.nl
- ↑ German born anerlie; Born Abroad: An Immigration map of Britain: Germany, 2001
- ↑ 2008, 0.15% o UK population. statistics.gov.uk
- ↑ "INE(2006)". INE. Retrieved 28 September 2011.
- ↑ 265,944 (2009, 3.3% o Swiss population) Wohnbevölkerung nach detaillierter Staatsangehörigkeit, Swiss Federal Statistical Office. 163 923 resident aliens (nationals or citizens) in 2004 (2.2% of total population), compared to 112 348 as of 2000. 2005 report of the Swiss Federal Office of Statistics. 4.6 million including Alemannic Swiss: CIA World Fact Book Archived 2018-01-12 at the Wayback Machine, identifies the 65% (4.9 million) Swiss German speakers as "ethnic Germans".
- ↑ 2002 census
- ↑ (in Spaingie) / Inmigración Alemana al Perú Archived 2009-11-23 at the Wayback Machine
- ↑ "census 2001". Archived frae the original on 3 September 2005. Retrieved 13 Julie 2012.
- ↑ 2008, 1.5% o Austrian population. Wer sind die Deutschen in Österreich? Archived 2009-04-27 at the Wayback Machine
- ↑ "Money overcomes ideology as Israelis hunt down German passports| Yediot Ahronot | 31.05.2011". Ynetnews.com. 20 Juin 1995. Retrieved 28 September 2011.
- ↑ "German minority" (in (in German)). Auswaertiges-amt.de. Archived frae the original on 18 Julie 2011. Retrieved 28 September 2011.CS1 maint: unrecognised leid (link)
- ↑ "There are 6,000 Germans living in Uruguay today and 40,000 descendants of Germans" (in (in German)). Auswaertiges-amt.de. Retrieved 28 September 2011.CS1 maint: unrecognised leid (link)
- ↑ "Ethnic German Minorities in the Czech Republic, Poland and Slovakia". Radio.cz. Retrieved 28 September 2011.
- ↑ Romero, Simon (21 December 2006). "Land reform worries Bolivia's Mennonites". International Herald Tribune. Archived frae the original on 21 December 2006. Retrieved 28 September 2011.
- ↑ (in Dutch) "Bevolking per nationaliteit, geslacht, leeftijdsgroepen op 1 January 2008". Statistics Belgium. Archived frae the original on 20 November 2011. Retrieved 30 Mey 2010.
- ↑ "Norway". Archived frae the original on 1 Februar 2010. Retrieved 13 Julie 2012.
- ↑ Joshua Project. "Ethnic groups around the world". joshuaproject.net. Retrieved 28 September 2011.
- ↑ "Amid Namibia's White Opulence, Majority Rule Isn't So Scary Now". New York Times. 26 December 1988. Retrieved 28 September 2011.
- ↑ "Dominican Republic" (in (in German)). Auswaertiges-amt.de. Retrieved 28 September 2011.CS1 maint: unrecognised leid (link)
- ↑ in the German-Dens border region; see Bund Deutscher Nordschleswiger Archived 2013-03-16 at the Wayback Machine
- ↑ "Greeks Census 2001" (PDF). Archived frae the original (PDF) on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 28 September 2011.
- ↑ "CSO: Statistics: Persons usually resident and present in the State on Census Night, classifieid by place of birth and age group". Cso.ie. 13 Mey 2008. Retrieved 28 September 2011.
- ↑ "Slovakia" (in (in German)). Auswaertiges-amt.de. Retrieved 28 September 2011.CS1 maint: unrecognised leid (link)
- ↑ 2000 census
- ↑ a b Joshua Project. "joshuaproject.net". joshuaproject.net. Retrieved 28 September 2011.
- ↑ Out Of Many Cultures The People Who Came The Arrival Of The GERMANS "The Arrival Of The GERMANS" Check
|url=value (help). Jamaica Gleaner. 2 Mairch 2004. Retrieved 31 Mey 2012.
Freemit airtins[eedit | eedit soorce]
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