Albert Einstein

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Nobel prize medal.svg Albert Einstein
Einstein 1921 by F Schmutzer - restoration.jpg
Albert Einstein in 1921
Born 14 Mairch 1879(1879-03-14)
Ulm, Kinrick o Württemberg, German Empire
Died 18 Aprile 1955(1955-04-18) (aged 76)
Princeton, New Jersey, U.S.
Residence Germany, Italy, Swisserland, Austrick (present-day Czech Republic), Belgium, Unitit States
Fields Pheesics, filosofie
Thesis Eine neue Bestimmung der Moleküldimensionen (A New Determination of Molecular Dimensions) (1905)
Doctoral advisor Alfred Kleiner
Ither academic advisors Heinrich Friedrich Weber
Kent for
Notable awairds
Spoose Mileva Marić (1903–1919)
Elsa Löwenthal (1919–1936)[2][3]
Bairns "Lieserl" (1902–1903?)
Hans Albert (1904–1973)
Eduard "Tete" (1910–1965)

Albert Einstein (/ˈnstn/;[4] German: [ˈalbɛɐ̯t ˈaɪnʃtaɪn] ( listen); 14 March 1879 – 18 Apryle 1955) wis a German-born theoretical pheesicist. He developed the theory o relativity, ane o the twa pillars o modren pheesics (alangside quantum mechanics).[1][5]:274 Einstein's work is also known for its influence on the filosofie o science.[6][7] Einstein is best known in popular culture for his mass–energy equivalence formula E = mc2 (which haes been dubbed "the warld's maist famous equation").[8] He received the 1921 Nobel Prize in Pheesics "for his services tae theoretical pheesics, an especially for his discovery o the law o the photoelectric effect",[9] a pivotal step in the evolution o quantum theory.

Near the beginnin o his career, Einstein thocht that Newtonian mechanics wis na langer eneuch tae reconcile the laws o clessical mechanics wi the laws o the electromagnetic field. This led him tae develop his special theory o relativity during his time at the Swiss Patent Office in Bern, Swisserland. Briefly afore, he aquired the Swiss ceetizenship in 1901, which he kept for his whole life, efter bein stateless for mair nor five years. He realised, houever, that the principle o relativity could an aa be extendit tae gravitational fields, an wi his subsequent theory o gravitation in 1916, he published a paper on general relativity. He continued tae deal wi problems o stateestical mechanics an quantum theory, which led tae his explanations o pairticle theory an the motion o molecules. He an aa investigatit the thermal properties o licht which laid the foondation o the photon theory o licht. In 1917, Einstein applee'd the general theory o relativity tae model the lairge-scale structur o the universe.[10][11]

He wis veesitin the Unitit States when Adolf Hitler came tae pouer in 1933 an, bein Jewish, did nae gae back tae Germany, whaur he haed been a professor at the Berlin Academy o Sciences. He settled in the Unitit States, acomin an American ceetizen in 1940.[12] On the een o Warld War II, he endorsed a letter tae Preses Franklin D. Roosevelt alertin him tae the potential development o "extremely pouerful bombs o a new teep" an recommendin that the U.S. begin seemilar resairch. This eventually led tae whit wad acome the Manhattan Project. Einstein supportit defendin the Allied forces, but generally denoonced the idea o uisin the newly discovered nuclear fission as a wappen. Later, wi the Breetish filosofer Bertrand Russell, Einstein signed the Russell–Einstein Manifesto, which heichlichtit the danger o nuclear wappens. Einstein wis affiliatit wi the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey, till his daith in 1955.

Einstein published mair nor 300 scienteefic papers alang wi ower 150 non-scienteefic warks.[10][13] On 5 December 2014, varsities an archives annoonced the release o Einstein's papers, comprisin mair nor 30,000 unique documents.[14][15] Einstein's intellectual achievements an oreeginality hae made the wird "Einstein" synonymous wi "genius".[16]

Notes[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. 1.0 1.1 During the German Empire, ceetizenship war exclusively subject o ane o the 27 Bundesstaaten

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Whittaker, E. (1 November 1955). "Albert Einstein. 1879–1955". Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society. 1: 37–67. JSTOR 769242. doi:10.1098/rsbm.1955.0005. 
  2. Heilbron, John L., ed. (2003). The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science. Oxford University Press. p. 233. ISBN 978-0-19-974376-6. 
  3. Pais 1982, p. 301.
  4. Wells, John (Aprile 3, 2008). Longman Pronunciation Dictionary (3rd ed.). Pearson Longman. ISBN 1-4058-8118-6. 
  5. Fujia Yang; Joseph H. Hamilton (2010). Modern Atomic and Nuclear Physics. World Scientific. ISBN 978-981-4277-16-7. 
  6. Don A. Howard, ed. (2014) [First published 11 February 2004], "Einstein's Philosophy of Science", Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (website), The Metaphysics Research Lab, Center for the Study of Language and Information (CSLI), Stanford University, retrieved 2015-02-04 
  7. Don A. Howard (December 2005), "Albert Einstein as a Philosopher of Science" (PDF), Physics Today, American Institute of Physics, 58 (12): 34–40, Bibcode:2005PhT....58l..34H, doi:10.1063/1.2169442, retrieved 2015-03-08 – via University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN, author's personal webpage 
  8. David Bodanis (2000). E = mc2: A Biography of the World's Most Famous Equation. New York: Walker. 
  9. "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1921". Nobel Prize. Retrieved 11 Julie 2016. 
  10. 10.0 10.1 Scientific Background on the Nobel Prize in Physics 2011. The accelerating universe (PDF), Nobel Media AB, p. 2, retrieved 2015-01-04 – via 
  11. Overbye, Dennis (24 November 2015). "A Century Ago, Einstein's Theory of Relativity Changed Everything". New York Times. Retrieved 24 November 2015. 
  12. Paul S. Boyer; Melvyn Dubofsky (2001). The Oxford Companion to United States History. Oxford University Press. p. 218. ISBN 978-0-19-508209-8. 
  13. Paul Arthur Schilpp, ed. (1951), Albert Einstein: Philosopher-Scientist, II, New York: Harper and Brothers Publishers (Harper Torchbook edition), pp. 730–746 . His non-scientific works include: About Zionism: Speeches and Lectures by Professor Albert Einstein (1930), "Why War?" (1933, co-authored by Sigmund Freud), The World As I See It (1934), Out of My Later Years (1950), and a book on science for the general reader, The Evolution of Physics (1938, co-authored by Leopold Infeld).
  14. Stachel 2008.
  15. Overbye, Dennis (4 December 2014). "Thousands of Einstein Documents Are Now a Click Away". New York Times. Retrieved 2015-01-04. 
  16. Result of WordNet Search for Einstein, 3.1, The Trustees of Princeton University, retrieved 2015-01-04