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Help:IPA for Inglis

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Throuoot Wikipaedia, the pronunciation o wirds is indicatit bi means o the Internaitional Phonetic Alphabet (IPA).

IPA Examples
b buy, cab
d dye, cad, do
ð thy, breathe, father
giant, badge, jam
f fan, caff, phi
ɡ (ɡ)[1] guy, bag
h high, ahead
hw why[2]
j[3] yes, hallelujah
k sky, crack
l lie, sly, gal
m my, smile, cam
n nigh, snide, can
ŋ sang, sink, singer
θ thigh, math
p pie, spy, cap
r[4] rye, try, very
s sigh, mass
ʃ shy, cash, emotion
t tie, sty, cat, atom
china, catch
v vie, have
w wye, swine
z zoo, has
ʒ equation, pleasure, vision, beige[5]
Marginal consonants
x ugh, loch, Chanukah[6]
ʔ uh-oh /ˈʔʌʔoʊ/
˜ bon vivant /ˌbɒ̃ viːˈvɒ̃/[7]
IPA Full vouels IPA ... follaed bi R[8]
ɑː PALM, father, bra ɑːr START, bard, barn, snarl, star
ɒ LOT, pod, John[9] ɒr moral, forage
æ TRAP, pad, ban[10][11] ær barrow, marry[12]
PRICE, ride, file, fine, pie[13] aɪər Ireland, hire (= /aɪr/)
aɪ.ər higher, buyer[14]
MOUTH, loud, foul, down, how aʊər flour (= /aʊr/)
aʊ.ər flower[14]
ɛ DRESS, bet, fell, men[15] ɛr error, merry[15]
FACE, made, fail, vein, pay ɛər SQUARE, mare, scarce, cairn, Mary (= /eɪr/)[16]
eɪ.ər layer (one who lays)[14]
ɪ KIT, lid, fill, bin ɪr mirror, Sirius
FLEECE, seed, feel, mean, sea ɪər NEAR, beard, fierce, serious (= /iːr/)[17]
iː.ər freer
ɔː THOUGHT, Maud, dawn, fall, straw[18] ɔːr NORTH, born, war, Laura[19][20]
ɔː.ər sawer
ɔɪ CHOICE, void, foil, coin, boy ɔɪər coir (= /ɔɪr/)
ɔɪ.ər employer[14]
GOAT, code, foal, bone, go[21] ɔər FORCE, more, boar, oral (= /oʊr/)[19][20]
oʊ.ər mower
ʊ FOOT, good, full, woman ʊr courier
GOOSE, food, fool, soon, do ʊər boor, moor, tourist (= /uːr/)[19][20]
uː.ər truer
juː cute, mule, puny, beauty, huge, tune[22] jʊər cure (= /juːr/)
juː.ər fewer
ʌ STRUT, bud, dull, gun[23] ɜːr NURSE, word, girl, fern, furry
ʌr hurry, nourish (in the UK)
Reduced vouels
ə COMMA, Rosa's, ago, quiet, focus ər LETTER, perceive
əl bottle (either [əl] or [l̩])
ən button (either [ən] or [n̩])
əm rhythm (either [əm] or [m̩])
i HAPPY, serious[24] (either /ɪ/ or /iː/) u situation (either /ʊ/ or /uː/)
[25] roses, enough[26] (either /ɪ/ or /ə/) ᵿ[25] beautiful, curriculum ([jᵿ])[27] (either /ʊ/ or /ə/)
Stress Syllabification
IPA Examples IPA Examples
ˈ intonation /ˌɪntəˈneɪʃən/,[28]
battleship /ˈbætəlʃɪp/[29]
. /haɪər/ hire, /haɪ.ər/ higher[30]


  1. If the twa chairacters ⟨ɡ⟩ an ⟨⟩ dinna match an if the first leuks lik a ⟨γ⟩, then ye hae an issue wi yer default font. See Renderin issues.
  2. The phoneme /hw/ is not distinguished from /w/ in the many dialects with the wine–whine merger, such as RP and most varieties of GenAm. For more information on this sound, see voiceless labio-velar approximant.
  3. The IPA value o the letter ⟨j⟩ is coonter-intuitive tae mony Inglis speakers. Houever, it does occur wi this soond in a few Inglis wirds: Besides hallelujah, thare's Jägermeister an jarlsberg cheese.
  4. In maist varieties o Inglis, /r/ is pronoonced as an approximant [ɹ]. Awtho the IPA seembol [r] represents a trill, /r/ is widely uised instead o /ɹ/ in broad transcriptions o Inglis.
  5. A nummer o Inglis wirds, such as genre an garage, are pronoonced wi either /ʒ/ or /dʒ/.
  6. In maist dialects, /x/ is replaced bi /k/ in maist wirds, includin loch. Whaur the soond begins a wird, such as Chanukah, it is sometimes replaced wi /h/. In ugh, it is eften replaced bi /ɡ/ (a spellin pronunciation).
  7. Anly foond in French loanwirds an eften replaced bi /n/ or /m/: bon vivant /ˌbɒn viːˈvɒn/.
  8. In non-rhotic accents lik RP, /r/ is nae pronoonced unless follaed bi a vouel. In some Wikipaedia airticles, /ɪər/ etc. mey nae be distinguished frae /ɪr/ etc. Thir should be fixed tae correspond wi the chairt here.
  9. /ɒ/ is nae distinguished frae /ɑː/ in dialects wi the father–bother merger such as GenAm.
  10. Some regions, such as New York Ceety an Philadelphia, separate this intae twa phonemes, /æ/ an /eǝ/, sae that the vouel in crash mey be closer tae that in mail nor that in cat. In ither dialects, such as General American, the twa soonds are allophones. See /æ/ tensin.
  11. In some regions, whit would normally be [æŋ] or [æɡ] is pronoonced as [eŋ] or [eɪŋ], [eɡ] or [eɪɡ], sae that the a in rang an rag is closer tae the ai in rain nor the a in rat.
  12. /ær/ is pronounced the same as /ɛr/ in accents with the Mary–marry–merry merger.
  13. Mony speakers, for example in maist o Canadae an much o the Unitit States, hae a different vouel in price an ride. Generally, an [aɪ] is uised at the ends o wirds an afore vyced soonds, as in ride, file, fine, pie, while an [ʌɪ] is uised afore vyceless soonds, as in price an write. Acause /t/ an /d/ are eften conflatit in the middle o wirds in thir dialects, derivatives o thir wirds, such as rider an writer, mey be distinguished anly bi thair vouel: [ˈɹʷɾəɹ], [ˈɹʷʌɪɾəɹ]. Houever, even tho the value o /aɪ/ is nae predictable in some wirds, such as spider [ˈspʌɪɾəɹ],[citation needit] dictionaries dinna generally record it, sae it haes nae been allocatit a separate transcription here.
  14. a b c d Some speakers pronounce higher, flower, layer (stratum) an mayor wi twa syllables, an hire, flour, lair an mare wi ane. Ithers pronoonce them the same.
  15. a b /ɛ/ is transcrived as /e/ bi mony dictionaries.[ref 1]
  16. /ɛər/ is pronoonced the same as /ɛr/ in accents wi the Mary–marry–merry merger. It is eften transcrived as /eə/ bi Breetish dictionaries an as /er/ bi American anes. The OED uises /ɛː/ for BrE an /ɛ(ə)r/ for AmE,[ref 2] but the Oxford Online Dictionaries apparently alweys uise /er/ for AmE despite haein /e(ə)r/ in thair key tae US pronunciations.[ref 3][ref 4]
  17. /ɪər/ is pronoonced the same as /ɪr/ in accents wi the mirror–nearer merger.
  18. /ɔː/ is nae distinguished frae /ɒ/ (except sfore /r/) in dialects wi the cot–caught merger such as some varieties o GenAm.
  19. a b c /ɔər/ is nae distinguished frae /ɔːr/ in dialects wi the horse–hoarse merger, which include maist dialects o modren Inglis.
  20. a b c /ʊər/ is nae distinguished frae /ɔːr/ in dialects wi the pour–poor merger, includin mony younger speakers.
  21. /oʊ/ is commonly transcrived /əʊ/ or /oː/.
  22. In dialects wi yod droppin, /juː/ is pronoonced the same as /uː/ efter coronal consonants (/t/, /d/, /s/, /z/, /n/, /θ/, an /l/) in the same syllable, sae that dew /djuː/ is pronoonced the same as do /duː/. In dialects wi yod coalescence, /tj/, /dj/, /sj/ and /zj/ are pronoonced /tʃ/, /dʒ/, /ʃ/ an /ʒ/, sae that the first syllable in Tuesday is pronoonced the same as choose.
  23. /ʌ/ isna uised in the dialects o the northren hauf o Ingland, some borderin pairts o Wales, an some broad eastren Ireland accents. Thir wirds would tak the ʊ vowel: thare is na foot–strut split.
  24. /i/ is pronoonced [i] in dialects wi the happy tensin, [ɪ] in ither dialects. Breetish convention uised tae transcrive it wi ⟨ɪ⟩, but the OED an ither influential dictionaries recently convertit tae ⟨i⟩.
  25. a b The seembols ⟨ᵻ⟩ an ⟨ᵿ⟩ are nae uised accordin tae the IPA. Thay are based on the OED uise.
  26. /ᵻ/ is pronounced [ə] in Australian and many US dialects, [ɪ] in Received Pronunciation. Mony speakers freely alternate between a reduced [ɪ̈] and a reduced [ə].
  27. /ᵿ/ is pronoonced [ʊ] in mony dialects, [ə] in ithers. Mony speakers freely alternate atween a reduced [ʊ̈] an a reduced [ə].
  28. It is arguable that thare is na phonemic distinction in Inglis atween primar an seicontar stress,[ref 5] but it is conventional tae notate them as here.
  29. Full vouels follaein a stressed syllable, such as the ship in battleship, are merked wi seicontar stress in some dictionaries (Merriam-Webster), but nae in ithers (the OED).
  30. Syllable diveesions are nae uisually merked, but the IPA dot '.' mey be uised when it is wished tae mak expleecit whaur a diveesion atween syllables is (or mey be) made.

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Wells, John (18 Mairch 2009). "e and ɛ". John Wells's phonetic blog. Blogspot. Retrieved 13 Mairch 2015.
  2. "Key to pronunciation". Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 13 Mairch 2015.
  3. "square" in Oxford Online Dictionaries
  4. Key to US pronunciations in Oxford Online Dictionaries
  5. Ladefoged, Peter (1993), A Course in Phonetics (3rd ed.), Orlando: Harcourt Brace, ISBN 0-15-507319-2