Help:IPA for Inglis
Throuoot Wikipaedia, the pronunciation o wirds is indicatit bi means o the Internaitional Phonetic Alphabet (IPA).
Key[eedit | eedit soorce]
- The IPA stress merk (ˈ) comes before the syllable that haes the stress, in contrast tae stress merkin in pronunciation keys o some dictionaries published in the Unitit States.
- Words in SMALL CAPITALS are the staundart lexical sets. Wirds in the lexical sets BATH an CLOTH mey be gien twa transcriptions, either wi /ɑː/ an /ɔː/, or wi /æ/an /ɒ/, respectively.
Notes[eedit | eedit soorce]
- If the twa chairacters ⟨ɡ⟩ an ⟨⟩ dinna match an if the first leuks lik a ⟨γ⟩, then ye hae an issue wi yer default font. See Renderin issues.
- The phoneme /hw/ is not distinguished from /w/ in the many dialects with the wine–whine merger, such as RP and most varieties of GenAm. For more information on this sound, see voiceless labio-velar approximant.
- The IPA value o the letter ⟨j⟩ is coonter-intuitive tae mony Inglis speakers. Houever, it does occur wi this soond in a few Inglis wirds: Besides hallelujah, thare's Jägermeister an jarlsberg cheese.
- In maist varieties o Inglis, /r/ is pronoonced as an approximant [ɹ]. Awtho the IPA seembol [r] represents a trill, /r/ is widely uised instead o /ɹ/ in broad transcriptions o Inglis.
- A nummer o Inglis wirds, such as genre an garage, are pronoonced wi either /ʒ/ or /dʒ/.
- In maist dialects, /x/ is replaced bi /k/ in maist wirds, includin loch. Whaur the soond begins a wird, such as Chanukah, it is sometimes replaced wi /h/. In ugh, it is eften replaced bi /ɡ/ (a spellin pronunciation).
- Anly foond in French loanwirds an eften replaced bi /n/ or /m/: bon vivant /ˌbɒn viːˈvɒn/.
- In non-rhotic accents lik RP, /r/ is nae pronoonced unless follaed bi a vouel. In some Wikipaedia airticles, /ɪər/ etc. mey nae be distinguished frae /ɪr/ etc. Thir should be fixed tae correspond wi the chairt here.
- /ɒ/ is nae distinguished frae /ɑː/ in dialects wi the father–bother merger such as GenAm.
- Some regions, such as New York Ceety an Philadelphia, separate this intae twa phonemes, /æ/ an /eǝ/, sae that the vouel in crash mey be closer tae that in mail nor that in cat. In ither dialects, such as General American, the twa soonds are allophones. See /æ/ tensin.
- In some regions, whit would normally be [æŋ] or [æɡ] is pronoonced as [eŋ] or [eɪŋ], [eɡ] or [eɪɡ], sae that the a in rang an rag is closer tae the ai in rain nor the a in rat.
- /ær/ is pronounced the same as /ɛr/ in accents with the Mary–marry–merry merger.
- Mony speakers, for example in maist o Canadae an much o the Unitit States, hae a different vouel in price an ride. Generally, an [aɪ] is uised at the ends o wirds an afore vyced soonds, as in ride, file, fine, pie, while an [ʌɪ] is uised afore vyceless soonds, as in price an write. Acause /t/ an /d/ are eften conflatit in the middle o wirds in thir dialects, derivatives o thir wirds, such as rider an writer, mey be distinguished anly bi thair vouel: [ˈɹʷaɪɾəɹ], [ˈɹʷʌɪɾəɹ]. Houever, even tho the value o /aɪ/ is nae predictable in some wirds, such as spider [ˈspʌɪɾəɹ],[citation needit] dictionaries dinna generally record it, sae it haes nae been allocatit a separate transcription here.
- Some speakers pronounce higher, flower, layer (stratum) an mayor wi twa syllables, an hire, flour, lair an mare wi ane. Ithers pronoonce them the same.
- /ɛ/ is transcrived as /e/ bi mony dictionaries.[ref 1]
- /ɛər/ is pronoonced the same as /ɛr/ in accents wi the Mary–marry–merry merger. It is eften transcrived as /eə/ bi Breetish dictionaries an as /er/ bi American anes. The OED uises /ɛː/ for BrE an /ɛ(ə)r/ for AmE,[ref 2] but the Oxford Online Dictionaries apparently alweys uise /er/ for AmE despite haein /e(ə)r/ in thair key tae US pronunciations.[ref 3][ref 4]
- /ɪər/ is pronoonced the same as /ɪr/ in accents wi the mirror–nearer merger.
- /ɔː/ is nae distinguished frae /ɒ/ (except sfore /r/) in dialects wi the cot–caught merger such as some varieties o GenAm.
- /ɔər/ is nae distinguished frae /ɔːr/ in dialects wi the horse–hoarse merger, which include maist dialects o modren Inglis.
- /ʊər/ is nae distinguished frae /ɔːr/ in dialects wi the pour–poor merger, includin mony younger speakers.
- /oʊ/ is commonly transcrived /əʊ/ or /oː/.
- In dialects wi yod droppin, /juː/ is pronoonced the same as /uː/ efter coronal consonants (/t/, /d/, /s/, /z/, /n/, /θ/, an /l/) in the same syllable, sae that dew /djuː/ is pronoonced the same as do /duː/. In dialects wi yod coalescence, /tj/, /dj/, /sj/ and /zj/ are pronoonced /tʃ/, /dʒ/, /ʃ/ an /ʒ/, sae that the first syllable in Tuesday is pronoonced the same as choose.
- /ʌ/ isna uised in the dialects o the northren hauf o Ingland, some borderin pairts o Wales, an some broad eastren Ireland accents. Thir wirds would tak the ʊ vowel: thare is na foot–strut split.
- /i/ is pronoonced [i] in dialects wi the happy tensin, [ɪ] in ither dialects. Breetish convention uised tae transcrive it wi ⟨ɪ⟩, but the OED an ither influential dictionaries recently convertit tae ⟨i⟩.
- The seembols ⟨ᵻ⟩ an ⟨ᵿ⟩ are nae uised accordin tae the IPA. Thay are based on the OED uise.
- /ᵻ/ is pronounced [ə] in Australian and many US dialects, [ɪ] in Received Pronunciation. Mony speakers freely alternate between a reduced [ɪ̈] and a reduced [ə].
- /ᵿ/ is pronoonced [ʊ] in mony dialects, [ə] in ithers. Mony speakers freely alternate atween a reduced [ʊ̈] an a reduced [ə].
- It is arguable that thare is na phonemic distinction in Inglis atween primar an seicontar stress,[ref 5] but it is conventional tae notate them as here.
- Full vouels follaein a stressed syllable, such as the ship in battleship, are merked wi seicontar stress in some dictionaries (Merriam-Webster), but nae in ithers (the OED).
- Syllable diveesions are nae uisually merked, but the IPA dot '.' mey be uised when it is wished tae mak expleecit whaur a diveesion atween syllables is (or mey be) made.
References[eedit | eedit soorce]
- Wells, John (18 Mairch 2009). "e and ɛ". John Wells's phonetic blog. Blogspot. Retrieved 13 Mairch 2015.
- "Key to pronunciation". Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 13 Mairch 2015.
- "square" in Oxford Online Dictionaries
- Key to US pronunciations in Oxford Online Dictionaries
- Ladefoged, Peter (1993), A Course in Phonetics (3rd ed.), Orlando: Harcourt Brace, ISBN 0-15-507319-2