Hungary

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Coordinates: 47°N 20°E / 47°N 20°E / 47; 20

Hungary
Magyarország  (Hungarian)
Anthem: "Himnusz" (Hungarian)[1]
"Hime"
Location o  Hungary  (daurk green)– on the European continent  (green & daurk grey)– in the European Union  (green)  —  [Legend]
Location o  Hungary  (daurk green)

– on the European continent  (green & daurk grey)
– in the European Union  (green)  —  [Legend]

Caipital
an lairgest ceety
Budapest
47°26′N 19°15′E / 47.433°N 19.250°E / 47.433; 19.250
Offeecial leid
an naitional leid
Hungarian[2]
Ethnic groups (2011)
Releegion
Demonym Hungarian
Govrenment Unitar pairlamentary
constitutional republic
János Áder
Viktor Orbán
László Kövér
Legislatur Országgyűlés (Naitional Assembly)
Foundation
895[5]
4–6 Julie 907
25 December 1000[6]
24 Apryle 1222
29 August 1526
2 September 1686
15 Mairch 1848
20 Mairch 1867
4 Juin 1920
23 October 1989
1 Mey 2004
Aurie
• Tot
93,030[7] km2 (35,920 sq mi) (108t)
• Watter (%)
0.74%
Population
• 2017 estimate
9,797,561[8] (92nt)
• Density
105.3/km2 (272.7/sq mi) (103rd)
GDP (PPP) 2017 estimate
• Total
$284.266 billion[9] (57t)
• Per capita
$28,965[9] (45t)
GDP (nominal) 2017 estimate
• Total
$125.297 billion[9] (58t)
• Per capita
$12,767[9] (54t)
Gini (2014) positive decrease 27.9[10]
law · 16t
HDI (2015) Increase 0.836[11]
verra heich · 43rd
Siller Forint (HUF)
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
• Summer (DST)
CEST (UTC+2)
Date format yyyy/mm/dd
Drives on the right
Cawin code +36
Patron saunt Virgin Mary
ISO 3166 code HU
Internet TLD .hua
  1. Also .eu as part of the European Union.

Hungary (Hungarian: Magyarország) is a kintra in Europe. It's bund bi Ukraine an Romanie tae the east, Serbie an Croatie tae the sooth, Austrick an Slovenie tae the wast, an Slovakie tae the north. Wi aboot 10 million inhabitants, Hungary is a medium-sized member state o the European Union.[12] The offeecial leid is Hungarian, that is the maist widely spoken Uralic leid in the warld.[13] Hungary's caipital an its lairgest ceety an metropolis is Budapest, a signeeficant economic hub, clessifee'd as a leadin global ceety.[14] Major urban auries include Debrecen, Szeged, Miskolc, Pécs an Győr.

Follaein centuries o successive habitation bi Celts, Romans, Germanic fowk, Wast Slavs, Avars, an the Huns the foondation o Hungary wis laid in the late 9t century bi the Hungarian grand prince Árpád in the conquest o the Carpathian Basin.[15][16] His great-grandson Stephen I ascendit the throne in 1000, convertin the kintra tae a Christian kinrick. Bi the 12t century, Hungary becam a middle pouer within the Wastren warld, reachin a gowden age bi the 15t century.[17] Follaein the Battle o Mohács in 1526 an aboot 150 years o pairtial Ottoman occupation (1541–1699), Hungary cam unner Habsburg rule, an later formed the great pouer Austro–Hungarian Empire thegither wi Austrick.[18]

Hungary's current mairches war established in 1920 bi the Treaty o Trianon efter Warld War I, whan the kintra lost 71% o its territory, 58% o its population, an 32% o ethnic Hungarians.[19][20][21] Follaein the interwar period, Hungary jynt the Axis Powers in Warld War II, sufferin signeeficant damage an casualties.[22][23] Hungary becam a satellite state o the Soviet Union, that contreibutit tae the establishment o a socialist republic spannin fower decades (1949[24]–1989[25]).[26] The kintra gained widespread internaitional attention as a result o its Revolution o 1956 an the seminal appenin o its previously-restrictit mairch wi Austrick in 1989, that accelerated the collapse o the Eastren Bloc.[27][28] On 23 October 1989, Hungary becam a democratic pairlamentar republic.[29]

In the 21st century, Hungary is a middle pouer[30][31] an haes the warld's 57t lairgest economy bi nominal GDP, as weel as the 58t lairgest bi PPP, oot o 191 kintras meisurt bi IMF. As a substantial actor in several industrial an technological sectors,[32] it is the warld's 35t lairgest exporter an 34t lairgest importer o guids. Hungary is an OECD heich-income economy wi a verra heich staundart o leevin.[33][34] It keeps up a social siccarity an universal heal care seestem, an a tuition-free varsity eddication.[35][36] Hungary performs weel in internaitional rankins: it is 20t in quality o life, 24t in Guid Kintra Index, 28t in inequality-adjuistit human development, 32nt in the Social Progress Index, 33rd in Global Innovation Index an ranks as the 15t saufest country in the warld.

Hungary jynt the European Union in 2004 an haes been pairt o the Schengen Aurie syne 2007.[37] Hungary is a member o the Unitit Naitions, NATO, WTO, Warld Bank, the AIIB, the Cooncil o Europe, the Visegrád Group an mair.[38] Weel kent for its rich cultural history, Hungary haes contreibutit signeeficantly tae airts, muisic, leeteratur, sports an science an technology.[39][40][41][42] Hungary is the 11t maist popular kintra as a tourist destination in Europe, attractin 14.3 million internaitional tourists in 2015.[43] It is hame tae the lairgest thermal watter cave seestem an the seicont lairgest thermal loch in the warld, the lairgest loch in Central Europe an the lairgest naitural gresslands in Europe.[44][45]

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. "The Story Behind the Hungarian National Anthem". Jules S. Vállay. Retrieved 8 May 2017. 
  2. "The Fundamental Law of Hungary" (PDF). Hungarian State. Retrieved 8 May 2017. 
  3. "2011 Hungary Census Report" (PDF). ksh.hu. 
  4. ANALYSIS (10 May 2017). "Religious Belief and National Belonging in Central and Eastern Europe" (PDF). Archived frae the oreeginal (PDF) on 13 May 2017. Retrieved 12 May 2017. 
  5. Encyclopedia Americana, Volume 1, Scholastic Library Pub., 2006, p. 581
  6. University of British Columbia. Committee for Medieval Studies, Studies in medieval and renaissance history, Committee for Medieval Studies, University of British Columbia, 1980, p. 159
  7. "Hungary". CIA The World Factbook. Retrieved 27 March 2014. 
  8. "Population by type of settlement – annually". Hungarian Central Statistical Office. 24 December 2015. Retrieved 24 December 2015. 
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 "Hungary". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 29 April 2017. 
  10. "Gini coefficient of equivalised disposable income (source: SILC)". Eurostat Data Explorer. Retrieved 4 December 2015. 
  11. "Human Development Report 2015" (PDF). United Nations. 2015. Retrieved 14 December 2015. 
  12. "Eurostat – Population on 1 January 2015". European Commission. Retrieved 20 August 2015. 
  13. "Uralic (Finno-Ugrian) languages, Classification of the Uralic (Finno-Ugrian) languages, with present numbers of speakers and areas of distribution (last updated 24 September 2015)". helsinki.fi. 6 June 2017. Retrieved 6 June 2017. 
  14. "Budapest is classified as Alpha- leading global city". Globalization and World Cities (GaWC) Research Network, Loughborough University. 13 April 2010. Retrieved 25 November 2016. 
  15. "Hungary in the Carpathian Basin" (PDF). Lajos Gubcsi, PhD. 6 June 2017. Retrieved 6 June 2017. 
  16. Acta Orientalia Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae. 36. Magyar Tudományos Akadémia (Hungarian Academy of Sciences). 1982. p. 419. 
  17. Kristó Gyula – Barta János – Gergely Jenő: Magyarország története előidőktől 2000-ig (History of Hungary from the prehistory to 2000), Pannonica Kiadó, Budapest, 2002, ISBN 963-9252-56-5, p. 687, pp. 37, pp. 113 ("Magyarország a 12. század második felére jelentős európai tényezővé, középhatalommá vált."/"By the 12th century Hungary became an important European constituent, became a middle power.", "A Nyugat részévé vált Magyarország ... /Hungary became part of the West"), pp. 616–644
  18. "Austria-Hungary, HISTORICAL EMPIRE, EUROPE". Encyclopædia Britannica. 6 June 2017. Retrieved 6 June 2017. 
  19. Richard C. Frucht (31 December 2004). Eastern Europe: An Introduction to the People, Lands, and Culture. ABC-CLIO. p. 360. ISBN 978-1-57607-800-6. 
  20. "Trianon, Treaty of". The Columbia Encyclopedia. 2009. 
  21. "Text of the Treaty, Treaty of Peace Between The Allied and Associated Powers and Hungary And Protocol and Declaration, Signed at Trianon June 4, 1920". Retrieved 10 June 2009. 
  22. Hungary: The Unwilling Satellite Archived 16 February 2007 at the Wayback Machine. John F. Montgomery, Hungary: The Unwilling Satellite.http://kapos.hu/hirek/kis_szines/2018-06-16/megerkezett_az_idei_balaton_sound_himnusza.html Devin-Adair Company, New York, 1947. Reprint: Simon Publications, 2002.
  23. Thomas, The Royal Hungarian Army in World War II, pg. 11
  24. "1949. évi XX. törvény. A Magyar Népköztársaság Alkotmánya" [Act XX of 1949. The Constitution of the Hungarian People's Republic]. Magyar Közlöny (Hungarian Bulletin) (in Hungarian). Budapest: Állami Lapkiadó Nemzeti Vállalat. 4 (174): 1361. 20 August 1949. 
  25. "1989. évi XXXI. törvény az Alkotmány módosításáról" [Act XXXI of 1989 on the Amendment of the Constitution]. Magyar Közlöny (Hungarian Bulletin) (in Hungarian). Budapest: Pallas Lap- és Könyvkiadó Vállalat. 44 (74): 1219. 23 October 1989. 
  26. It wis govrened bi the Socialist Wirkers' Pairty, that wis unner the influence o the Soviet Union. – Rao, B. V. (2006), History of Modern Europe Ad 1789–2002: A.D. 1789–2002, Sterling Publishers Pvt. Ltd.
  27. Hanrahan, Brian (9 May 2009). "Hungary's Role in the 1989 Revolutions". BBC News. 
  28. Kamm, Henry (17 June 1989). "Hungarian Who Led '56 Revolt Is Buried as a Hero". The New York Times. 
  29. "1989. évi XXXI. törvény az Alkotmány módosításáról" [Act XXXI of 1989 on the Amendment of the Constitution]. Magyar Közlöny (in Hungarian). Budapest: Pallas Lap- és Könyvkiadó Vállalat. 44 (74): 1219. 23 October 1989. 
  30. Solomon S (1997) South African Foreign Policy and Middle Power Leadership Archived 26 April 2015 at the Wayback Machine., ISS
  31. Higgott, Richard A.; Cooper, Andrew Fenton (1990). "Middle power leadership and coalition building: Australia, the Cairns Group, and the Uruguay Round of trade negotiations". International Organization. 44 (4): 589–632. doi:10.1017/S0020818300035414. JSTOR 2706854. 
  32. "Hungary: Emerging Economic Power In Central And Eastern Europe". Thomas White International. Retrieved 18 June 2017. 
  33. Country and Lending Groups. Warld Bank. Accessed on Julie 1, 2016.
  34. "List of OECD Member countries – Ratification of the Convention on the OECD". Oecd.org. Retrieved 2011-11-04. 
  35. OECD (June 27, 2013). "OECD Health Data: Social protection". OECD Health Statistics (database). Paris: OECD. doi:10.1787/data-00544-en. Retrieved 2013-07-14. 
  36. Eurydice. "Compulsory Education in Europe 2013/2014" (PDF). European commission. Retrieved 19 May 2014. 
  37. "Benefits of EU Membership". Hungarian Chamber of Commerce and Industry. 6 June 2017. Retrieved 6 June 2017. 
  38. "International organizations in Hungary". Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Archived frae the oreeginal on 13 March 2016. Retrieved 20 November 2016. 
  39. "Hungary's Nobel Prize Winners, 13 Hungarian win Nobel Prize yet". Hungarian Academy of Sciences. 
  40. "Population per Gold Medal. Hungary has the second highest gold medal per capita in the world. All together it has 175 gold medal until 2016". medalspercapita.com. 
  41. Hungarian literature – ”Popular poetry is the only real poetry was the opinion of Sándor Petőfi, one of the greatest Hungarian poets, whose best poems rank among the masterpieces of world literature.”, Encyclopædia Britannica, 2012 edition
  42. Szalipszki, pg.12
    Refers tae the kintra as "widely considered" tae be a "home of music".
  43. "UNWTO Tourism Highlights, 2016 Edition – World Tourism Organization". doi:10.18111/9789284418145 (inactive 2018-02-06). Retrieved 3 August 2017. 
  44. "Search – Global Edition – The New York Times". International Herald Tribune. 29 March 2009. Retrieved 20 September 2009. 
  45. "Lake Balaton". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2008-03-20.