|Union o Soviet Socialist Republics
|Союз Советских Социалистических Республик
Soyuz Sovetskikh Sotsialisticheskikh Respublik
Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь!
(Translit.: Proletarii vsekh stran, soyedinyaytes'!)
Scots: Wirkers o the warld, unite!
"The Internationale" (1922–1994)
"Naitional Anthem o the Soviet Union"
The Soviet Union efter Warld War II
|Leids||Russian, mony ithers|
|Releegion||State atheism (see text)|
|Government||Marxist–Leninist single-pairty state|
|-||1922–1952||Joseph Stalin (first)|
|-||1991||Vladimir Ivashko (last)|
|Heid o State|
|-||1922–1938||Mikhail Kalinin (first)|
|-||1988–1991||Mikhail Gorbachev (last)|
|Heid o Govrenment|
|-||1922–1924||Vladimir Lenin (first)|
|-||1991||Ivan Silayev (last)|
|-||Upper hoose||Soviet o the Union|
|-||Lawer hoose||Soviet o Naitionalities|
|Historical era||Interwar stoond (en) / World War II / Cauld War|
|-||Treaty o Creation||30 Dizember 1922|
|-||Union dissolvit||26 Dizember 1991|
|-||1991||22,402,200 km² (8,649,538 sq mi)|
|Density||13.1 /km² (33.9 /sq mi)|
|Siller||Soviet ruble (руб) (SUR)|
|1On 21 December 1991, eleiven o the umwhile socialist republics declared in Alma-Ata (wi the 12t republic – Georgie – attendin as a observer) that wi the formation o the Commonwalth o Unthirlt States the Union o Soviet Socialist Republics ceases tae exist.
2Assigned on 19 September 1990, existin onwairds.
The Soviet Union (whiles spelt in Scots "Sovyet Union"), formally the Union o Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) (Roushie: Союз Советских Социалистических Республик, СССР; Soyuz Sovetskikh Sotsialisticheskikh Respublik) wis a Marxist-Leninist kintra in Eurasie. It wis shapit in 1922, efter the Roushie Revolution o 1917; its first leader wis Vladimir Lenin. It wis a confederation o 15 consteetuent republics, the biggest o thaim bein Roushie. The Union, alang wi the rule o the Communist Pairty, fell apairt in 1991, efter a series o reforms stairtit by Mikhail Gorbachev.It wis governit as a single-pairty kintra by the Communist pairty wi Moscow as its caipital. Its government & economy were highly centralized.
The Sovyet Union had its roots in the Roushie Revolution o 1917, which overthrew the Roushie Empire. The Bolsheviks, the majority faction o the Social Democratic Labour Party, led by Vladimir Lenin, then led a second revolution which overthrew the provisional government and establishit the Roushie Socialist Federative Sovyet Republic (renamed Roushie Sovyet Federative Socialist Republic in 1936), beginnin a civil war between pro-revolution Reds and counter-revolution Whites. The Red Army entered several territories o the former Russian Empire, and helped local Communists take power through soviets that nominally acted on behalf o wirkers and peasants. In 1922, the Communists were victorious, forming the Sovyet Union wi the unification o the Russian, Transcaucasian, Ukrainian, and Byelorussian republics. Following Lenin's death in 1924, a troika collective leadership and a brief power struggle, Joseph Stalin came to power in the mid-1920s. As a result, the country underwent a period of rapid industrialisation and collectivisation which laid the basis for its later war effort and dominance after World War II. However, Stalin establishit political paranoia, and introduced arbitrary arrests on a massive scale after which the authorities transferred many people (military leaders, Communist Party members, ordinary citizens alike) to correctional labour camps or sentenced them to death. In the beginning o World War II, efter the United Kingdom and France rejected an alliance wi the Sovyet Union against Nazi Germany, the USSR signed a non-aggression pact wi Germany; the treaty delayed confrontation between the two countries, but was disregarded in 1941 when the Nazis invaded, opening the largest and bloodiest theatre o war in history. Sovyet war casualties accounted for the highest proportion o the conflict in the cost o acquiring the upper hand over Axis forces at intense battles such as Stalingrad. Sovyet forces eventually captured Berlin in 1945, inflicting the vast majority o German losses. The territory overtaken by the Sovyet Union from Axis forces in Central and Eastern Europe became satellite states o the Eastern Bloc. Ideological and political differences wi Wastern Bloc counterparts directed by the United States led to the formation o Comecon and the Warsaw Pact, culminating in the prolonged Cauld War.
Following Stalin's death in 1953, a period o moderate social and economic liberalization, known as "de-Stalinization" and "Khrushchev Thaw", occurred under the administration o Nikita Khrushchev. The Sovyet Union then went on to initiate significant technological achievements o the 20th century, including launching the first ever satellite and world's first human spaceflight, which led it into the Space Race. The 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis marked a period o extreme tension between the two superpowers, considered the closest to a mutual nuclear confrontation. In the 1970s, a relaxation o relations followed, but tensions resumed when the Soviet Union deployed troops in Afghanistan at the request o its new socialist government in 1979. The campaign drained economic resources and dragged on without achieving meaningful political results. In the late 1980s the last Sovyet leader, Mikhail Gorbachev, sought to reform the Union and move it in the direction o Nordic-style social democracy, introducing the policies of glasnost and perestroika in an attempt to end the period o economic stagnation and democratize the government. However, this led to the rise of strongnationalist and separatist movements. Central authorities initiated a referendum, boycotted by the Baltic republics, Armenie, Georgie, and Moldovæ, which resulted in the majority o participating citizens voting in favour of preserving the Union as a renewed federation. In August 1991, a coup d'état was attempted by hardliners against Gorbachev, with the intention o reversing his policies. The coup failed, with Roushie President Boris Yeltsin playing a high-profile role in facing down the coup, resulting in the banning o the Communist Pairty. On 25 December 1991, Gorbachev resigned and the remaining twelve consteetuent republics emerged from the dissolution of the Sovyet Union as independent post-Sovyet states. The Roushie Federation(formerly the Roushie SFSR) assumed the Sovyet Union's rights and obligations and is recognised as its continued legal personality.
- Declaration № 142-Н (Roushie) o the Soviet o the Republics o the Supreme Soviet o the Soviet Union, formally establishin the dissolution o the Soviet Union as a state an subject o internaitional law.
- 73 Years of State Atheism in the Soviet Union, ended amid collapse in 1990
- Historical Dictionary of Socialism. James C. Docherty, Peter Lamb. Page 85. "The Soviet Union was a one-party Marxist-Leninist state.".
- Ideology, Interests, and Identity. Stephen H. Hanson. Page 14. "the USSR was officially a Marxist-Leninist state"
- The Fine Line between the Enforcement of Human Rights Agreements and the Violation of National Sovereignty: The Case of Soviet Dissidents. Jennifer Noe Pahre. Page 336. "... the Soviet Union, as a Marxist-Leninist state ...". Page 348. "The Soviet Union is a Marxist–Leninist state."
- Leninist National Policy: Solution to the "National Question"?. Walker Connor. Page 31. "... four Marxist-Leninist states (the Soviet Union, China, Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia)..."
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