Soviet Union

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Union o Soviet Socialist Republics
Ither names
Союз Советских Социалистических Республик
Soyuz Sovetskikh Sotsialisticheskikh Respublik

 

 

 

1922–1991[1]
Banner State Emblem
Motto
Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь!
(Translit.: Proletarii vsekh stran, soyedinyaytes'!)
Scots: Wirkers o the warld, unite!
Anthem
"The Internationale" (1922–1994)
"Naitional Anthem o the Soviet Union"
(1944–1991)
The Soviet Union efter Warld War II
Caipital Moscow
Leids Russian, mony ithers
Releegion State atheism[2] (see text)
Government Marxist–Leninist single-pairty state
General Secretary
 -  1922–1952 Joseph Stalin (first)
 -  1991 Vladimir Ivashko (last)
Heid o State
 -  1922–1938 Mikhail Kalinin (first)
 -  1988–1991 Mikhail Gorbachev (last)
Heid o Govrenment
 -  1922–1924 Vladimir Lenin (first)
 -  1991 Ivan Silayev (last)
Legislatur Supreme Soviet
 -  Upper hoose Soviet o the Union
 -  Lawer hoose Soviet o Naitionalities
Historical era Interwar stoond (en) / World War II / Cauld War
 -  Treaty o Creation 30 Dizember 1922
 -  Union dissolvit 26 Dizember 1991[1]
Aurie
 -  1991 22,402,200 km² (8,649,538 sq mi)
Population
 -  1991 est. 293,047,571 
     Density 13.1 /km²  (33.9 /sq mi)
Siller Soviet ruble (руб) (SUR)
Internet TLD .su2
Cawin code +7
Precedit bi
Succeedit bi
Roushie Soviet Federal Socialist Republic
Transcaucasie Socialist Federal Socialist Republic
Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic
Byeloroushie Soviet Socialist Republic
Roushie
Georgie
Ukraine
Moldovae
Belaroushie
Armenie
Azerbaijan
Kazakhstan
Uzbekistan
Turkmenistan
Kyrgyzstan
Tajikistan
Estonie3
Latvie3
Lithuanie3
1On 21 December 1991, eleiven o the umwhile socialist republics declared in Alma-Ata (wi the 12t republic – Georgie – attendin as a observer) that wi the formation o the Commonwalth o Unthirlt States the Union o Soviet Socialist Republics ceases tae exist.

2Assigned on 19 September 1990, existin onwairds.
3The govrenments o Estonie, Latvie, an Lithuanie view thaimsels as continuous an unrelatit tae the respective Soviet republics.
Roushie views the Estonie, Latvie, an Lithuanie SSRs as legal constituent republics o the USSR an forebears o the modren Baltic states.
The Govrenment o the Unitit States an a nummer o ither kintras didna recognise the annexation o Estonie, Latvie, an Lithuanie tae the USSR as a legal inclusion.

The Soviet Union (whiles spelt "Sovyet Union"), formally the Union o Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) (Roushie: Союз Советских Социалистических Республик, СССР; Soyuz Sovetskikh Sotsialisticheskikh Respublik) wis a Marxist-Leninist kintra[3][4][5][6] in Eurasie. It wis shapit in 1922, efter the Roushie Revolution o 1917; its first leader wis Vladimir Lenin. It wis a confederation o 15 consteetuent republics, the biggest o thaim bein Roushie. The Union, alang wi the rule o the Communist Pairty, fell apairt in 1991, efter a series o reforms stairtit by Mikhail Gorbachev.It wis governit as a single-pairty kintra by the Communist pairty wi Moscow as its caipital. Its government & economy wis heich centralised.

The Sovyet Union haed its springheid in the Roushie Revolution o 1917, whilk owerthrew the Roushie Empire. The Bolsheviks, the majority faction o the Social Democratic Labour Party, led by Vladimir Lenin, then led a second revolution whilk owerthrew the provisional government an establishit the Roushie Socialist Federative Sovyet Republic (renamed Roushie Sovyet Federative Socialist Republic in 1936), beginnin a civil war atween pro-revolution Reds an counter-revolution Whites. The Red Army entered several territories o the former Russian Empire, and helpit local Communists tak pouer through soviets that nominally actit on behauf o wirkers an peasants. In 1922, the Communists wis victorious, formin the Sovyet Union wi the unification o the Russian, Transcaucasian, Ukrainian, and Byelorussian republics. Follaein Lenin's death in 1924, a troika collective leadership and a brief power struggle, Joseph Stalin came to power in the mid-1920s. As a result, the kintra dreed a period of rapid industrialisation an collectivisation whilk laid the basis for its later war effort an dominance efter World War II. Housomever, Stalin establishit political paranoia, an introduced arbitrary arrests on a massive scale efter whilk the authorities transferred mony bodies (military heid anes, Communist Party members, ordinary citizens alike) tae correctional labour camps or justifeed thaim. In the beginning o World War II, efter the United Kingdom and France rejected an alliance wi the Sovyet Union again Nazi Germany, the USSR signed a non-aggression pact wi Germany; the treaty delayed confrontation atween the twa kintras, but wis disregardit in 1941 whan the Nazis invaded, opening the largest and bloodiest theatre o war in history. Sovyet war casualties accounted for the highest proportion o the conflict in the cost o acquiring the upper hand over Axis forces at intense battles such as Stalingrad. Sovyet forces eventually captured Berlin in 1945, inflictin the vast majority o German losses. The territory owertaen by the Sovyet Union frae Axis forces in Central an Eastern Europe became satellite states o the Eastern Bloc. Ideological and political differences wi Wastern Bloc counterparts direct by the Unitit States led to the formation o Comecon an the Warsaw Pact, culminating in the prolonged Cauld War.

Follaein Stalin's deith in 1953, a period o moderate social an economic liberalization, kent as "de-Stalinization" and "Khrushchev Thaw", occurred unner the administration o Nikita Khrushchev. The Sovyet Union then continued an initiate significant technological achievements o the 20th century, includin launching the first ever satellite an the warld's first human spaceflicht, whilk led it into the Space Race. The 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis marked a period o extreme tension between the two superpowers, considered the closest to a mutual nuclear confrontation. In the 1970s, a relaxation o relations followed, but tensions resumed when the Soviet Union deployed troops in Afghanistan at the request o its new socialist government in 1979. The campaign drained economic resources and dragged on athoot achievin meaningfu political results. In the late 1980s, the last Sovyet leader, Mikhail Gorbachev, socht tae reform the Union an muive it in the direction o Nordic-style social democracy, introducin the policies o glasnost an perestroika in an attempt to end the period o economic stagnation an democratise the government. Housomever, this led to the rise of strongnationalist and separatist movements. Central authorities initiate a referendum, boycott by the Baltic republics, Armenie, Georgie, an Moldovæ, whilk result in the majority o participating citizens votin in favour o preservin the Union as a renewed federation. In August 1991, a coup d'état wis ettilt by hardliners again Gorbachev, wi the intention o reversin his policies. The coup failed, wi Roushie President Boris Yeltsin playin a heich-profile role in facin doun the coup, resultin in the bannin o the Communist Pairty. On 25 December 1991, Gorbachev resigned an the remainin twal consteetuent republics emerged frae the dissolution o the Sovyet Union as independent post-Sovyet states. The Roushie Federation (umwhile the Roushie SFSR) assumed the Sovyet Union's richts an obligations an is recognised as its continued legal personality.

References.

  1. Declaration № 142-Н (Roushie) o the Soviet o the Republics o the Supreme Soviet o the Soviet Union, formally establishin the dissolution o the Soviet Union as a state an subject o internaitional law.
  2. 73 Years of State Atheism in the Soviet Union, ended amid collapse in 1990
  3. Historical Dictionary of Socialism. James C. Docherty, Peter Lamb. Page 85. "The Soviet Union was a one-party Marxist-Leninist state.".
  4. Ideology, Interests, and Identity. Stephen H. Hanson. Page 14. "the USSR was officially a Marxist-Leninist state"
  5. The Fine Line between the Enforcement of Human Rights Agreements and the Violation of National Sovereignty: The Case of Soviet Dissidents. Jennifer Noe Pahre. Page 336. "... the Soviet Union, as a Marxist-Leninist state ...". Page 348. "The Soviet Union is a Marxist–Leninist state."
  6. Leninist National Policy: Solution to the "National Question"?. Walker Connor. Page 31. "... four Marxist-Leninist states (the Soviet Union, China, Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia)..."