Joseph Stalin

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Joseph Stalin
Иосиф Сталин (Roushie)
იოსებ სტალინი (Georgie)
Stalin in 1937
General secretar o the Central Committee o the Communist Pairty o the Soviet Union
In office
3 Apryle 1922 – 16 October 1952
Precedit biVyacheslav Molotov
(as Responsible Secretar)
Succeedit biNikita Khrushchev
(office reestablished)
Chairman o the Cooncil o Meenisters
In office
6 Mey 1941 – 5 Mairch 1953
First DeputiesNikolai Voznesensky
Vyacheslav Molotov
Precedit biVyacheslav Molotov
Succeedit biGeorgy Malenkov
Fowkcommissar for Defence o the Soviet Union
In office
19 Julie 1941 – 25 Februar 1946
Precedit biSemyon Timoshenko
Succeedit biNikolai Bulganin
after vacancy
Member o the Secretariat
In office
3 April 1922 – 5 March 1953
Full member o the Presidium
In office
25 Mairch 1919 – 5 Mairch 1953
Member of the Orgburo
In office
16 Januar 1919 – 5 Mairch 1953
Personal details
Born18 December 1878(1878-12-18)
Gori, Tiflis Govrenorate, Roushie Empire
Dee'd5 Mairch 1953(1953-03-05) (aged 74)
Kuntsevo Dacha, Kuntsevo, Roushie SFSR, Soviet Union
Restin placeLenin's Mausoleum, Moscow, Roushie SFSR, Soviet Union (9 Mairch 1953 – 31 October 1961)
Kremlin Waw Necropolis, Moscow, Roushie (frae 31 October 1961)
Poleetical pairtyCommunist Pairty o the Soviet Union
Spoose(s)Ekaterina Svanidze (1906–1907)
Nadezhda Alliluyeva (1919–1932)
BairnsYakov Dzhugashvili, Vasily Dzhugashvili, Svetlana Alliluyeva
ReligionNane (atheist), umwhile Georgie Orthodox
AwairdsHero o the Soviet Union

Militar service
Allegiance Soviet Union
Service/brainchSoviet Airmit Forces
Years o service1943–1953
RankMairshal o the Soviet Union (1943–1945)
Generalissimus o the Soviet Union (1945–1953)
CommandsAw (supreme commander)
Battles/warsWarld War II

Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin (18 December 1879 – 5 Mairch 1953) wis a Soviet politeecian an heid o state who servit as the first General Secretar o the Communist Pairty o the Soviet Union's Central Committee frae 1922 till his daith in 1953. Efter the daith o Vladimir Lenin in 1924, Stalin rase tae acome the leader o the Soviet Union, which he ruled as a dictator.

Stalin launcht a command economy, replacin the New Economic Policy o the 1920s wi Five-Year Plans an launchin a period o rapid industrialization an economic collectivization. The upheaval in the agricultural sector disruptit fuid production, resultin in widespread faimin, includin the catastrophic Soviet faimin o 1932–1933 (kent in Ukraine as the Holodomor).[1]

Durin the late 1930s, Stalin launcht the Great Purge (cried the "Great Terror" an aa), a campaign tae purge the Communist Pairty o fowk accuised o sabotage, terrorism, or treachery; he extendit it tae the military an ither sectors o Soviet society. In practice, the purges wur indiscriminate. Targets wur aften executit, impreesoned in Gulag labor camps or exiled. In the years which follaed, millions o members o ethnic minorities wur deportit an aw.[2][3]

In 1939 Stalin entered intae a non-aggression pact wi Nazi Germany, follaed bi the Soviet invasion o Poland, Finland, the Baltics, Bessarabie an northren Bukovinae. Efter Germany violatit the pact in 1941, the Soviet Union jynt the Allies tae play an important role in the Axis defeat, at the cost o the lairgest daith toll for ony kintra in the war (maistly due tae the mass daiths o civilians in territories occupeed bi Germany). Efter the war, Stalin instawed subservient communist govrenments in maist kintras in Eastren Europe, formin the Eastren bloc, ahint wha wis referred tae as an "Airn Curtain" o Soviet rule durin the Cauld War.

Stalin fostered a cult o personality aroond hissel, but efter his daith, his successor, Nikita Khrushchev, denoonced his legacy an drove the process o de-Stalinization o the Soviet Union.[4]

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Findings of the Commission on the Ukraine Famine Archived 2011-06-04 at the Wayback Machine, Famine Genocide, 19 April 1988; Statement by Pope John Paul II on the 70th anniversary of the Famine Archived 2007-06-30 at the Wayback Machine, Skrobach; [ Archived 2008-06-15 at the Wayback Machine Expressing the sense of the House of Representatives regarding the man-made famine that occurred in Ukraine in 1932–1933, US House of Representatives, 21 October 2003; Bilinsky, Yaroslav doi=10.1080/14623529908413948 Archived 2008-06-15 at the Wayback Machine Was the Ukrainian Famine of 1932–1933 Genocide?, Journal of Genocide Research, 1999, Vol. 1.1, Issue 2, pp. 147–156.
  2. Boobbyer 2000, p. 130
  3. Pohl, Otto, Ethnic Cleansing in the USSR, 1937–1949, ISBN 0-313-30921-3
  4. "Cult of Personality". Answers .com.