Winter War

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Winter War
Pairt o Warld War II
A group o soldiers in snowsuits mannin a hivy machine gun
A Finnish machine gun crew during the Winter War
Date30 November 1939 – 13 Mairch 1940
(3 months, 1 week and 6 days)
LocationEastren Finland
Result

Soviet victory

Territorial
changes
Cession o the Gulf o Finland islands, Karelie Isthmus, Ladoga Karelie, Salla, an Rybachy Peninsula, an lease o Hanko tae the Soviet Union
Belligerents
 Soviet Union
Finnish Democratic Republic
 Finland
Commanders an leaders
Soviet Union Joseph Stalin
Soviet Union Kirill Meretskov
Soviet Union Kliment Voroshilov
Soviet Union Semyon Timoshenko[F 1]
Finland Kyösti Kallio
Finland Risto Ryti
Finland Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim
Strenth
425,640–760,578 men[F 2]
998,100 men (oweraw) 2,514–6,541 tanks[F 3][9]
3,880 aircraft
250,000–340,000 men[F 4][10][11]
32 tanks[F 5][12]
114 aircraft[F 6][13]
Casualties an losses
126,875–167,976 dead or missin[F 7][15][16]
188,671 woondit, concussed or burned[15]
5,572 capturt[17]
316 tanks destroyed[F 8][18][19][20]
261–1,000 aircraft lost (via combat an non-combat causes) [F 9][20][21]
321,000–363,000 total casualties
25,904 dead or missin [F 10][22]
43,557 woondit[23]
800–1,100 capturt[F 11][24]
957 ceevilians killed in air raids[22]
20–30 tanks destroyed
62 aircraft lost[25]
70,000 tot casualties

The Winter War (Finnish: talvisota, Swadish: vinterkriget, Norse: Vinterkrigen, Roushie: Зи́мняя война́)[26] wis a militar conflict atween the Soviet Union an Finland in 1939–1940. It began wi the Soviet invasion o Finland on 30 November 1939 (three month efter the ootbreak o Warld War II), an endit wi the Moscow Peace Treaty on 13 Mairch 1940. The League o Naitions deemed the attack wrangous an expelled the Soviet Union frae the League on 14 December 1939.[27]

Notes[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Commander o the Leningrad Militar Destrict Kiril Meretskov initially ran the oweraw operation against the Finns.[1] The command wis passed on 9 December 1939 tae the General Staff Supreme Command (later kent as Stavka), directly unner Kliment Voroshilov (chairman), Nikolai Kuznetsov, Joseph Stalin an Boris Shaposhnikov.[2][3] In Januar 1940, the Leningrad Militar Destrict wis reformed an renamed "North-Wastren Front." Semyon Timoshenko wis chosen Airmy Commander tae break the Mannerheim Line.[4]
  2. 425,640 men on 30 November 1939[5] 550,757 men on 1 Januar 1940 an 760,578 men bi the beginnin o Mairch.[6] 1,000,000 men[7] 20 diveesions ane month afore the war an 58 diveesions twa weeks afore its end in Leningrad Militar Destrict.[8]
  3. At the beginnin o the war the Soviets haed 2,514 tanks an 718 airmoured caurs. The main battlefield wis the Karelie Isthmus whaur the Soviets deployed 1,450 tanks. At the end o the war the Soviets haed 6,541 tanks an 1,691 airmoured cars. The maist common tank teep wis T-26, but an aa BT teep wis very common.
  4. At the beginnin o the war, the Finns haed 300,000 men. The Finnish airmy haed anly 250,028 rifles (tot 281,594 fireairms), but White Guards brocht thair ain rifles (ower 114,000 rifles, tot 116,800 fireairms) tae the war. The Finnish airmy reakit its maximum strenth at the beginnin o Mairch 1940 wi 346,000 men in uniform.
  5. Frae 1919 onwards, the Finns possessed 32 French Renault tanks an few lichter tanks. Thae war unsuitable for the war an thay war subsequently uised as fixed pillboxes. The Finns bocht 32 Breetish Vickers tanks through 1936–39, but wioot wappens. Weapons wae intendit tae be manufacturt an installed in Finland. Anly 10 tanks war fit for combat at the beginnin o the conflict.
  6. Situation for 1 December 1939. The Finns haed 114 combat aeroplanes fit for duty an seiven aeroplanes for communication an observation purposes. In addeetion, less nor 100 aeroplanes war uised for flicht trainin purposes, nae suitable for combat, or unner repair. In tot, the Finns haed 173 aircraft an 43 reserve aircraft.
  7. Thare are mony estimates o the nummer o the Soviet casualties. The offeecial Soviet figur in 1940 wis 48,745 dead. In 1990, Mikhail Semiryaga claimed 53,522 dead an N. I. Baryshnikov 53,500 dead. In the early 1990s, Grigoriy Krivosheyev claimed 126,875 deid an missin, an tot casualties 391,783. Yuri Kilin in 1999 claimed 63,990 deid, tot casualties 271,528 men; in 2007 he revised the estimate o deid tae 134,000 dead.[14] The results o the Krivosheyev's resairch group haes a "semi-offeecial" status. In 2013 Pavel Petrov reportit that the Central Airchive o the Roushie Meenistry o Defence haes a database confirmin 167,976 killt an missin.
  8. The offeecial figur wis 611 tank casualties; but Yuri Kilin haes foond a note received bi the heid o the Soviet General Staff Boris Shaposhnikov which reports 3,543 tank casualties an 316 tanks destroyed. Accordin tae Finnish historian Ohto Manninen, the 7t Soviet Airmy lost 1,244 tanks alane in the breakthrou battles o the Mannerheim Line in mid-winter. In the eftermath o the Winter War, the Finnish estimate o the nummer o lost Soviet tanks wis 1,000–1,200.
  9. Soviet Air Forces lost aboot 1,000 aircraft, but less nor hauf o them war combat casualties.
  10. Finnish detailed daith casualties: Dead, buried 16,766; Woondit, died o woonds 3,089; Dead, nae buried, later declared as deid 3,503; Missin, declared as dead 1,712; Died as a prisoner o war 20; Ither raisons (diseases, accidents, suicides) 677; Unkent 137.
  11. Efter the War, the Soviet Union repatriatit 847 Finns. Finnish an Roushie resairchers haes estimate the tot nummer o Finnish POWs at 800–1,100, an the nummer o daiths as 10–20. See: Finnish prisoners o war in the Soviet Union.

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Edwards (2006), p. 93
  2. Edwards (2006), p. 125
  3. Manninen (2008), p. 14
  4. Trotter (2002), p. 204
  5. Meltiukhov (2000): ch. 4, Table 10
  6. Krivosheyev (1997), p. 63
  7. Kilin (1999), p. 383
  8. Manninen (1994), p. 43
  9. Kantakoski (1998), p. 260
  10. Palokangas (1999), pp. 299–300
  11. Juutilainen & Koskimaa (2005), p. 83
  12. Palokangas (1999), p. 318
  13. Peltonen (1999)
  14. Kilin (2007b), p. 91
  15. 15.0 15.1 Krivosheyev (1997), pp. 77–78
  16. Anna Ruha (1 January 2014). "Tapaus nimeltä talvisota" (PDF) (in Finnish). University of Helsinki. 
  17. Manninen (1999b), p. 815
  18. Kilin (1999)[page needit]
  19. Kantakoski (1998), p. 286
  20. 20.0 20.1 Manninen (1999b), pp. 810–811
  21. Kilin (1999), p. 381
  22. 22.0 22.1 Kurenmaa an Lentilä (2005)
  23. Lentilä an Juutilainen (1999), p. 821
  24. Malmi (1999), p. 792
  25. Tillotson (1993), p. 160
  26. The names Soviet–Finnish War 1939–1940 (Roushie: Сове́тско-финская война́ 1939–1940) an Soviet–Finland War 1939–1940 (Roushie: Сове́тско-финляндская война́ 1939–1940) are aften uised in Roushie historiografie. See: Baryshnikov, N.; Salomaa, E. (2005), Вовлечение Финляндии во Вторую Мировую войну, in Chernov, M., Крестовый поход на Россию [Crusade Against Russia] (in Roushie), Moscow: Yauza, ISBN 5-87849-171-0  Unkent parameter |trans_title= ignored (help); Kovalyov, E. (2006), "7: Зимняя война балтийских подводных лодок (1939–1940 гг.) [Winter War and the Baltic Submarines (1939-1940)]", Короли подплава в море червонных валетов (in Roushie), Moscow: Tsentrpoligraf, ISBN 5-9524-2324-8  Unkent parameter |trans_title= ignored (help); Shirokorad, A. (2001), "IX: Зимняя война 1939–1940 гг. [Winter War 1939-1940]", Северные войны России (in Roushie), Moscow: ACT, ISBN 5-17-009849-9  Unkent parameter |trans_title= ignored (help)
  27. "League of Nations' Expulsion of the U.S.S.R." League of Nations. 14 December 1939. Retrieved 24 July 2009. 

Bibliografie[eedit | eedit soorce]

  • Edwards, Robert (2006). White Death: Russia's War on Finland 1939–40. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. ISBN 978-0-297-84630-7. 
  • Juutilainen, Antti; Koskimaa, Matti (2005). "Maavoimien joukkojen perustaminen". Js Pj (in Finnish).  (Formation o the Grund Forces)
  • Kantakoski, Pekka (1998). Punaiset panssarit: Puna-armeijan panssarijoukot 1918–1945 (in Finnish). Hauho: PS-Elso. ISBN 951-98057-0-2.  (Reid tanks: the Reid Airmy tank forces, 1918–1945)
  • Kilin, Yuri (1999). "Puna-armeijan Stalinin tahdon toteuttajana". Ts Pj (in Finnish).  (The Reid Airmy's execution o Stalin's will)
  • Krivosheyev, Grigoriy (1997b). Soviet Casualties and Combat Losses in the Twentieth Century (1st ed.). Greenhill Books. ISBN 1-85367-280-7. 
  • Lentilä, Riitta; Juutilainen, Antti (1999). "Talvisodan uhrit". Ts Pj.  (Victims o the Winter War)
  • Manninen, Ohto (1994). Talvisodan salatut taustat (Hidden backgrund o the Winter War) (in Finnish). Helsinki: Kirjaneuvos. ISBN 952-90-5251-0. 
  • Manninen, Ohto (2008). Miten Suomi valloitetaan: Puna-armeijan operaatiosuunnitelmat 1939–1944 (in Finnish). Helsinki: Edita. ISBN 978-951-37-5278-1.  (Hou tae conquer Finland: Operational plans o the Reid Airmy 1939–1944)
  • Meltiukhov, Mikhail (2000). Упущенный шанс Сталина. Советский Союз и борьба за Европу (in Roushie). Veche. Retrieved 29 October 2010.  Unkent parameter |trans_title= ignored (help)
  • Palokangas, Markku (1999). "Suomalaisjoukkojen aseistus ja varustus". Ts Pj (in Finnish).  (Armament an equipment o the Finnish forces)
  • Peltonen, Martti (1999). "Ilmasota talvisodassa". Ts Pj (in Finnish).  (The Winter War in the air)
  • Tillotson, H.M. (1993). Finland at peace & war 1918–1993. Michael Russell. ISBN 0-85955-196-2. 
  • Trotter, William R. (2002) [1991]. The Winter War: The Russo–Finnish War of 1939–40 (5th ed.). New York (Great Britain: London): Workman Publishing Company (Great Britain: Aurum Press). ISBN 1-85410-881-6. First published in the United States under the title A Frozen Hell: The Russo–Finnish Winter War of 1939–40