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Coordinates: 63°N 32°E / 63°N 32°E / 63; 32

Pairts o Karelie, as thay are tradeetionally dividit.
Mony fine examples o firthen airchitecture survive in Karelie, here on Kizhi island.

Karelie (Karelian an Finnish Karjala; Roushie: Карелия, Kareliya; Swadish: Karelen), the laund o the Karelie fowks, is an aurie in Northren Europe o historical significance for Finland, Roushie, an Swaden. It is currently dividit atween the Roushie Republic o Karelie, the Roushie Leningrad Oblast, an Finland (the regions o Sooth Karelie an North Karelie).

Uise o name[eedit | eedit soorce]

Various subdiveesions mey be cried Karelie. Finnish Karelie wis a historical province o Finland, nou dividit atween Finland an Roushie, aften cried juist Karjala in Finnish. The eastren pairt o this chiefly Lutheran aurie wis cedit tae Roushie efter the Winter War o 1939–40. This aurie is the "Karelia" o the Karelie question in Finnish politics.

The Republic o Karelie is a Roushie federal subject, includin the sae-cried "East Karelie" wi a chiefly Roushie Orthodox population.

Athin present-day Finland, Karjala refers tae regions o Sooth an North Karelie.

History[eedit | eedit soorce]

Karelia wis bitterly focht ower bi the Swades an the Novgorod Republic for a period stairtin in the 13t-century Swadish-Novgorodian Wars. The Treaty o Nöteborg (Finnish: Pähkinäsaaren rauha) in 1323 dividit Karelia atween the twa. Viborg (Finnish: Viipuri) became the caipital o the new Swadish province.

The Treaty o Nystad (Finnish: Uudenkaupungin rauha) in 1721 atween Imperial Roushie an Swaden ceded maist of Karelia tae Roushie. Efter Finland haed been occupied bi Roushie in the Finnish War, pairts o the ceded provinces (Old Finland) war incorporatit intae the Grand Duchy o Finland. In 1917, Finland becam independent an the mairch wis confirmed bi the Treaty o Tartu in 1920.

Finnish pairtisans wur involvit in attempts tae owerthrow the Bolshevists in Roushie Karelie (East Karelie) in 1918–20, sic as in the failed Aunus expedition. Thir mainly private expeditions endit efter the peace treaty o Tartu. Efter the end o the Roushie Ceevil War an the establishment o the Soviet Union in 1922, the Roushie pairt o Karelie became the Karelie Autonomous republic o the Soviet Union (ASSR) in 1923.

In 1939, the Soviet Union attacked Finland, sicweys stairtin the Winter War. The Moscow Peace Treaty o 1940 handed maist of Finnish Karelie tae the Soviet Union. Aboot 400,000 people, virtually the whole population, haed tae be relocated within Finland. In 1941, Karelia wis liberated for three years during the Continuation War of 1941 tae 1944 when East Karelia wis occupied bi the Finns. The Winter War an the resultin Soviet expansion caused considerable bitterness in Finland, which lost its seicont maist muckle ceity, Viipuri, its industrial heartland alang the river Vuoksi, the Saimaa canal that connected central Finland tae the Gulf o Finland, access tae the fishin watters o Loch Ladoga (Finnish: Laatokka), an made an aicht of her ceetizens refugees wioot chance of return.

As a consequence o the peace treaty, the Karelie ASSR wis incorporatit wi the Karelo-Finnish SSR 1941–1956, efter which it became an ASSR again. Karelia wis the anerlie Soviet republic that wis "demotit" frae an SSR tae an ASSR athin the Roushie SFSR. Unlik autonomous republics, Soviet republics (in theory) haed the constitutional richt tae secede. The possible fear o secession, as well as the Roushie ethnic minority in Karelie mey hae resultit in its "demotion." In 1991 the Republic o Karelie wis creatit oot o the ASSR.

Accordin tae a Finnish naitionalist soorce, the collapse o the Soviet Union brocht an economic collapse. Syne the dissolution o the Soviet Union, the aurie haes experiencit massive urban decay. The hastily an poorly constructit biggins frae the Soviet era, as well as aulder hooses remainin frae the Finnish era, are bein abandoned.[1]

Cairt showin the Republic o Karelie an the twa Finnish regions.

Politics[eedit | eedit soorce]

Karelia is dividit atween Finland an Roushie. The Republic o Karelie is a federal subject o Roushie, which wis formed in 1991 frae the Karelie ASSR. The Karelie Isthmus belongs tae the Leningrad Oblast. The Finnish side consists o pairts o the regions (maakunta) o Sooth Karelie an North Karelie.

Thare are some smaa but enthusiastic groups o Finns campaignin for closer ties atween Finland an Karelie. The poleetical expression o thir irredentist hopes is cried the Karelie question an is aboot Finland's re-acquisition o the ceded Finnish Karelie. Thir hopes live on, for instance, in the Karjalan Liitto an ProKarelie. Thir ambitions for closer ties wi East Karelie dae nae include territorial demands. Houiver, much o the oreeginal Finnish population o the Roushie side o Karelie haes been aither resettled an integratit tae inner Finland, Russified or dispersed intae Roushie as victims o Soviet internal population transfers.

Geografie[eedit | eedit soorce]

Coats o Airms o Karelie
Finnish Karelia
Russian Karelia

Karelia stretches frae the White Sea coast tae the Gulf of Finland. It contains the twa maist muckle lakes in Europe, Lake Ladoga an Lake Onega. The Karelian Isthmus is locatit atween the Gulf of Finland an Lake Ladoga.

The mairch atween Karelia an Ingria, the land o the closely relatit Ingrian people, haed oreeginally been the Neva river itself but later on it wis moved northward intae Karelian isthmus tae follae the Sestra River (Roushie: Сестра), the day in the Saint Petersburg metropolitan aurie, but in 1812–1940 the Russo-Finnish border.

On the ither side of Lake Ladoga, River Svir is uisually thocht of as the traditional soothren mairch of Karelian territory, as Lake Saimaa marks the Western mairch while Lake Onega an the White Sea merk the Eastern border. In the North thare war the nomadic Samis, but no naitural mairch except for huge woods (taiga) an tundra.

In historical texts Karelia is whiles dividit intae East Karelia an West Karelia, which are cried Russian Karelia an Finnish Karelia respectively an aw. The aurie tae the north of Lake Ladoga which belonged tae Finland afore World War II is cried Ladoga Karelia, an the parishes on the auld pre-war mairch are whiles cried Border Karelia. White Karelie is the northren pairt of East Karelie an Olonets Karelia is the soothren pairt.

Tver Karelia denotes the veelages in the Tver Oblast that are inhabitit bi Karelies.

Viipuri Castle at the Finnish Gulf. Viipuri wis cried the caipital o Karelie when it wis a pairt o Finland.

Inhabitit localities[eedit | eedit soorce]

Demografics[eedit | eedit soorce]

The Karelie leid is spoken in the Republic o Karelie an in the Tver Karelian veelages an aw. The Veps leid is spoken on baith sides o the River Svir. The sae-cried Karelie dialects o Finnish leid which are spoken mainly in Finnish Sooth Karelie form the sootheastren dialect group o Finnish. Similar dialects are spoken in Ingrie an aw, which is an aurie atween the Estonie mairch an Lake Ladoga. Thay appeared thare in the 17t century efter the Swadish conquest o the aurie. The aulder indwallers o the Ingrie, the Ingries, hae thair awn leid which is relatit tae the Karelie leid an the sooth-eastren dialects o Finnish.[2] The dialects in Finnish North Karelie belang tae the muckle group o Savonie dialects in Eastren an Central Finland. [1] Archived 1999-10-06 at the Wayback Machine Karelies who evacuatit frae Finnish Karelie resettled aw ower Finland an the day thare are approximately ane million fowk in Finland haein thair ruits in the aurie cedit tae the Soviet Union efter the Warld War II. In Finland, aboot 5,000 fowk speak Karelie.

Cultur[eedit | eedit soorce]

Relatit pages[eedit | eedit soorce]

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

Notes[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. (in Finnish) ROMAHTANUT YHTEISKUNTA ("Collapsed Society") Archived 2007-10-15 at the Wayback Machine on Free Karelia website
  2. "Archived copy". Archived frae the original on 4 October 1999. Retrieved 16 December 2012.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)

Bibliografie[eedit | eedit soorce]

Freemit airtins[eedit | eedit soorce]