Petrozavodsk

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Petrozavodsk (in Scots)
Петрозаводск (Roushie)
-  Ceety[1]  -
Petrozavodsk 06-2017 img25 aerial view.jpg
Karla Marksa Avenue in Petrozavodsk
Petrozavodsk is locatit in Roushie
Petrozavodsk
Petrozavodsk
Location o Petrozavodsk in Roushie
Coordinates: 61°47′N 34°20′E / 61.783°N 34.333°E / 61.783; 34.333Coordinates: 61°47′N 34°20′E / 61.783°N 34.333°E / 61.783; 34.333
Coat of Arms of Petrozavodsk (Karelia).png
Flag of Petrozavodsk (Karelia).png
Coat o airms
Banner
Ceety Day Last Seturday o Juin[citation needit]
Admeenistrative status (as o Juin 2008)
Kintra Roushie
Federal subject Republic o Karelie[2]
Admeenistratively subordinatit tae ceety o republic significance o Petrozavodsk[1]
Caipital o Republic o Karelie[1]
Admeenistrative centre o ceety o republic significance o Petrozavodsk,[1] Prionezhsky Destrict[1]
Municipal status (as of November 2011)
Urban okrug Petrozavodsky Urban Okrug[3]
Admeenistrative centre o Petrozavodsky Urban Okrug,[3] Prionezhsky Municipal Destrict[4]
Head[citation needit] Nikolay Levin[citation needit]
Representative bouk City Council[citation needit]
Statistics
Population (2010 Census) 261,987 inhabitants[5]
Rank in 2010 71st
Time zone [6]
Foondit 1703[citation needit]
Previous names Petrovskaya Sloboda (until 1777),[citation needit]
Petrozavodsk (until 1941),[citation needit]
Äänislinna (until 1944)[citation needit]
Postal code(s)[7] 185xxx
Dialin code(s) +7 8142[citation needit]
Offeecial wabsteid
Petrozavodsk on Wikimedia Commons

Petrozavodsk (Roushie: Петрозаводск; Karelie/Veps/Finnish: Petroskoi) is the caipital ceety o the Republic o Karelie, Roushie. It stretches alang the wastren shore o the Lake Onega for some 27 kilometers (17 mi). Population: 261,987 (2010 Census);[5] 266,160 (2002 Census);[8] 269,485 (1989 Census).[9]

History[eedit | eedit soorce]

Yachtin in Petrozavodsk

On 11 September 1703, Prince Menshikov foondit the dounset o Petrovskaya Sloboda ("Petrine Sloboda"). He did sae at the behest o Tsar Peter the Great, who needit a new iron foondry tae manufactur cannons an anchors for the Baltic Fleet at the time o the Great Northren War (1700–1721). At first the foondry uised the name Shuysky zavod (literally, "factory at the Shuya River"), but a decade later it became Petrovsky zavod ("Petrine factory"), efter the name o the reignin monarch. Frae this form the present name o the ceety derives.

Bi 1717, Petrovskaya Sloboda haed grown intae the lairgest dounset in Karelie, wi aboot 3,500 indwallers, a timber fort, a covered mercat, an miniatur palaces o the Tsar an Menshikov. The toun's best-kent laundmerk became the firthen kirk o Saunts Peter an Paul, rebuilt in 1772 an renovatit in 1789. The kirk retained its oreeginal iconostasis till this relic o Peter's reign wis destroyed bi fire on October 30, 1924.

Efter Peter's daith, Petrovskaya Sloboda became depopulatedit an the factory declined. It closed doun in 1734, awtho foreign industrialists maintained copper factories in the vicinity.

The industrie revivit in 1773 whan Catherine the Great established a new iron foondry upstream the Lososinka River. Designed tae provide cannons for the ongoin Rousho-Turkis Wars, the foondry wis namit Alexandrovsky, efter Alexander Nevsky, who wis considered a patron saunt o the region. The factory wis modernized an expandit unner superveesion o Charles Gascoigne in 1787–96. Local pundits claim that the first railwey in the warld (чугунный колесопровод) wis inauguratit for industrial uises o the Alexandrovsky foondry in 1788.

A kirk in Petrozavodsk, as photografit ca. 1912 bi Sergey Prokudin-Gorsky
Roond Square in central Petrozavodsk

Durin Catherine's municipal reform o 1777, Petrovskaya Sloboda wi incorporatit as a toun, whaurupon its name wis chyngit tae Petrozavodsk. A new Neoclassical ceety centre wis then biggit, focused on the newly-planned Roond Square. In 1784 Petrozavodsk wis lairge enough tae supplant Olonets as the admeenistrative centre o the region. Awtho Emperor Paul abolished Olonets Govrenorate, it wis revivit as a separate guberniya in 1801, wi Petrozavodsk as its admeenistrative centre.

Durin the Finnish occupation o East Karelie in the Continuation War (1941–1944), the occupeer chose tae style the ceety Äänislinna (or Ääneslinna), rather than the tradeetional Petroskoi. The new name wis a leeteral translation o Onegaborg, the name o a dounset markit on a 16t century cairt bi Abraham Ortelius near the present-day ceety, Ääninen bein the Finnish toponym for Lake Onega.

The ceety wis occupeed bi Finnish troops for nearly three years afore it wis retaken bi Soviet forces on 28 Juin 1944. The Finns set up concentration camps for the civilians which thay operatit till the Reid Airmy reoccupeed the aurie. The first camp wis locatit at Petrozavodsk (October 24, 1940). Sax sic camps wur set up in Petrozavodsk, wi aboot 25,000 weemen, childer an auld fowk confined in them. Ane soorce estimatit 4,000 fowk perished thare, primarily acause o malnourishment, maist dyin durin the ware an simmer o 1942.

Admeenistrative an municipal status[eedit | eedit soorce]

Petrozavodsk is the caipital o the republic an, athin the framewirk o admeenistrative diveesions, it serves as the admeenistrative centre o Prionezhsky Destrict an aw,[1] even tho it is no a pairt o it.[2] As an admeenistrative diveesion, it is incorporatit separately as the ceety o republic significance o Petrozavodsk—an admeenistrative unit wi the status equal tae that o the destricts.[1] As a municipal diveesion, the ceety o republic significance o Petrozavodsk is incorporatit as Petrozavodsky Urban Okrug.[3]

Landmarks[eedit | eedit soorce]

Petrozavodsk is distinguished amang ither touns o North Roushie bi its Neoclassical airchitectural heritage, which includes the Roond Square (1775, reconstructit in 1789 an 1839) an the Alexander Nevsky Cathedral (consecratit in 1832). Amang the toun's laundmerks are the ootdoor statues o Peter I (bronze an granite, Ippolit Monighetti, 1873), Gavrila Derzhavin (a Roushie poet who wis the govrenor o Olonets in the 18t century), an Alexander Nevsky (erectit ootside Alexander Nevsky Cathedral in 2010).

The ceety haes a fine frontage on the Guwf o Petrozavodsk. The modren embankment, inauguratit in 1994, displays an assortment o Karelie granites an marbles. It is lined wi extravagant postmodernist sculptures presented bi sister ceeties o Petrozavodsk frae aroond the warld. Thare is a birch copse an aw, whaur the first kirk o Petrozavodsk wis biggit in 1703.

Petrozavodsk is hame tae the Karelia Philharmonic Orchestra (1933)[1], the Karelian Muisical Theater (1955, statuar bi Sergey Konenkov), Naitional Library o Karelie (1959), Finnish-speakin Naitional Theatre o Karelie (1965), Petrozavodsk State Varsity, a conservatory, a ceety museum foondit in 1871, an a branch o the Roushie Academy o Sciences.

Suburbs[eedit | eedit soorce]

Statue o fishermen on the Onega embankment

The veelage o Shoksha near Petrozavodsk contains a quarry o reid an pink quartzite which wis uised in construction o Saunt Isaac's Cathedral an Lenin Mausoleum, amang mony ither notable structurs. Thare are ither quarries in the region an aw excavatin road aggregates (Goloday Gora – gabbro-diabase) near Derevyanka.

The suburb o Martsialnye Vody is the auldest spa in Roushie, foondit bi Peter the Great in 1714 an visitit bi the Tsar on fower occasions. Its name means "The Watters o Mars" in Roushie. Awtho Peter's palace at Martsialnye Vody haes no survivit, thare is a museum devotit tae the spa's history.

Frae Petrozavodsk harbour a hydrofoil service o "KareliaFlot" company cairies fowk tae the island o Kizhi, a Warld Heritage Steid wi an ootdoor museum o auncient firthen airchitectur.

Transportation[eedit | eedit soorce]

The ceety is servit bi the Petrozavodsk Airport.

Climate[eedit | eedit soorce]

Petrozavodsk experiences a continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dfc) that is greatly moderatit bi the oceanic influence o the Easter Seas. Winters are lang an cauld, tho vera mild for the heich latitude, while simmers are short an wairm. Precipitation averages 581 millimeters (22.9 in) annually.

Climate data for Petrozavodsk
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record heich °C (°F) 5.4
(41.7)
7.3
(45.1)
15.5
(59.9)
24.2
(75.6)
29.6
(85.3)
31.9
(89.4)
33.9
(93)
32.4
(90.3)
28.5
(83.3)
21.3
(70.3)
11.1
(52)
9.4
(48.9)
33.9
(93)
Average heich °C (°F) −6.4
(20.5)
−5.9
(21.4)
−0.3
(31.5)
6.5
(43.7)
13.6
(56.5)
18.4
(65.1)
21.5
(70.7)
18.6
(65.5)
13.1
(55.6)
6.4
(43.5)
−0.5
(31.1)
−4.3
(24.3)
6.7
(44.1)
Daily mean °C (°F) −9.3
(15.3)
−9.1
(15.6)
−3.7
(25.3)
2.3
(36.1)
8.7
(47.7)
13.7
(56.7)
17.0
(62.6)
14.5
(58.1)
9.5
(49.1)
3.8
(38.8)
−2.8
(27)
−7.0
(19.4)
3.1
(37.6)
Average law °C (°F) −12.6
(9.3)
−12.3
(9.9)
−7.0
(19.4)
−1.6
(29.1)
3.9
(39)
9.0
(48.2)
12.5
(54.5)
10.7
(51.3)
6.3
(43.3)
1.4
(34.5)
−5.2
(22.6)
−9.9
(14.2)
−0.4
(31.3)
Record law °C (°F) −41.6
(−42.9)
−39.3
(−38.7)
−30.0
(−22)
−19.3
(−2.7)
−9.8
(14.4)
−2.6
(27.3)
−0.1
(31.8)
−1.7
(28.9)
−5.0
(23)
−13.4
(7.9)
−27.5
(−17.5)
−36.8
(−34.2)
−41.6
(−42.9)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 36
(1.42)
26
(1.02)
32
(1.26)
30
(1.18)
48
(1.89)
64
(2.52)
82
(3.23)
82
(3.23)
60
(2.36)
59
(2.32)
50
(1.97)
42
(1.65)
611
(24.06)
Average rainy days 4 4 6 11 16 18 18 18 20 19 11 6 151
Average snowy days 26 24 20 10 3 0.3 0 0 1 8 20 27 139.3
Mean monthly sunshine oors 27.9 70.0 117.8 177.0 263.5 282.0 288.3 217.0 126.0 65.1 24.0 9.3 1,667.9
Soorce #1: Погода и Климат (Weather and Climate)[10]
Soorce #2: [11]

Twin touns an sister ceeties[eedit | eedit soorce]

Petrozavodsk Drama Theatre biggin

Petrozavodsk is twinned wi:

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

Notes[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 Law #871-ZRK
  2. 2.0 2.1 Constitution of the Republic of Karelia
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 Law #824-ZRK
  4. Law #825-ZRK
  5. 5.0 5.1 Roushie Federal State Stateestics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 Aw-Roushie Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 Aw-Roushie Population Census) (in Roushie). Federal State Stateestics Service. Retrieved Juin 29, 2012. 
  6. Правительство Российской Федерации. Федеральный закон №107-ФЗ от 3 июня 2011 г. «Об исчислении времени», в ред. Федерального закона №271-ФЗ от 03 июля 2016 г. «О внесении изменений в Федеральный закон "Об исчислении времени"». Вступил в силу по истечении шестидесяти дней после дня официального опубликования (6 августа 2011 г.). Опубликован: "Российская газета", №120, 6 июня 2011 г. (Govrenment o the Roushie Federation. Federal Law #107-FZ of Juin 31, 2011 On Calculatin Time, as amended by the Federal Law #271-FZ of Julie 03, 2016 On Amendin Federal Law "On Calculatin Time". Effective as of efter saxty days follaein the day o the offeecial publication.).
  7. Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. (Roushie Post). Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Postal Objects Search) (in Roushie)
  8. Roushie Federal State Stateestics Service (Mey 21, 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population o Roushie, Its Federal Destricts, Federal Subjects, Destricts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Admeenistrative Centres, an Rural Localities wi Population o Ower 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [Aw-Roushie Population Census o 2002] (in Roushie). Retrieved August 9, 2014. 
  9. Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [Aw Union Population Census o 1989: Present Population o Union an Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts an Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Destricts, Urban Settlements, an Veelages Servin as Destrict Admeenistrative Centres]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [Aw-Union Population Census o 1989] (in Roushie). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute o Demografie at the Naitional Resairch Varsity: Heicher Schuil o Economics]. Retrieved August 9, 2014. 
  10. "Pogoda.ru.net (Weather and Climate-The Climate of Petrozavodsk)" (in Russian). Weather and Climate. Retrieved 4 October 2012. 
  11. HKO "Climatological Information for Cita, Russia." Hong Kong Observatory
  12. "La Rochelle: Twin towns". www.ville-larochelle.fr. Retrieved 2009-11-07. 
  13. Petrozavodsk City Administration. Official website

Sources[eedit | eedit soorce]

  • Верховный Совет Карельской АССР. №473-ЗРК 30 мая 1978 г. «Конституция Республики Карелия», в ред. Закона №1314-ЗРК от 16 июля 2009 г «О внесении изменений в Конституцию Республики Карелия». Опубликован: отдельной брошюрой. (Supreme Soviet of the Karelian ASSR. #473-ZRK May 30, 1978 Constitution of the Republic of Karelia, as amended by the Law #1314-ZRK of July 16, 2009 On Amending the Constitution of the Republic of Karelia. ).
  • Законодательное Собрание Республики Карелия. Закон №871-ЗРК от 29 апреля 2005 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Республики Карелия», в ред. Закона №1207-ЗРK от 9 июня 2008 г «О внесении изменения в Закон Республики Карелия "Об административно-территориальном устройстве Республики Карелия"». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: газета "Карелия", №48, 7 мая 2005 г. (Legislative Assembly of the Republic of Karelia. Law #871-ZRK of April 29, 2005 On the Administrative and Territorial Structure of the Republic of Karelia, as amended by the Law #1207-ZRK of June 9, 2008 On Amending the Law of the Republic of Karelia "On the Administrative and Territorial Structure of the Republic of Karelia". Effective as of the official publication date.).
  • Законодательное Собрание Республики Карелия. Закон №824-ЗРК от 1 декабря 2004 г. «О наделении городских поселений статусом городского округа», в ред. Закона №1548-ЗРK от 3 ноября 2011 г «О внесении изменения в статью 2 Закона Республики Карелия "О наделении городских поселений статусом городского округа"». Вступил в силу по истечении десяти дней со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: газета "Карелия", №139, 9 декабря 2004 г. (Legislative Assembly of the Republic of Karelia. Law #824-ZRK of December 1, 2004 On Granting Urban Okrug Status to Urban Settlements, as amended by the Law #1548-ZRK of November 3, 2011 On Amending Article 2 of the Law of the Republic of Karelia "On Granting Urban Okrug Status to Urban Settlements". Effective as of the day which is ten days after the day of the official publication.).
  • Законодательное Собрание Республики Карелия. Закон №825-ЗРК от 1 декабря 2004 г. «О муниципальных районах в Республике Карелия», в ред. Закона №1694-ЗРK от 2 апреля 2013 г. «О преобразовании муниципальных образований "Нюхчинское сельское поселение" и "Сумпосадское сельское поселение" Беломорского муниципального района и внесении изменений в некоторые законодательные акты Республики Карелия». Вступил в силу по истечении десяти дней со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: газета "Карелия", №141, 16 декабря 2004 г. (Legislative Assembly of the Republic of Karelia. Law #825-ZRK of December 1, 2004 On the Municipal Districts in the Republic of Karelia, as amended by the Law #1694-ZRK of April 2, 2013 On the Transformation of the Municipal Formations of "Nyukhchinskoye Rural Settlement" and "Sumposadskoye Rural Settlement" of Belomorsky Municipal District of the Republic of Karelia and on Amending Various Legislative Acts of the Republic of Karelia. Effective as of the day which is ten days after the day of the official publication.).

Freemit airtins[eedit | eedit soorce]

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