Japan

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Coordinates: 35°N 136°E / 35°N 136°E / 35; 136

Japan
  • 日本国
  • Nippon-koku
  • Nihon-koku
Centered reid circle on a white rectangle.
Gowden circle subdividit bi gowden wedges wi roondit ooter edges an thin black ootlines.
Banner Imperial Seal
Anthem: 

Govrenment Seal o Japan
  • Seal o the Office o the Prime Meenister an the Govrenment o Japan
  • 五七桐 (Go-Shichi no Kiri?)
Location o Japan
Capital Tokyo
35°41′N 139°46′E / 35.683°N 139.767°E / 35.683; 139.767
Offeecial leids None[1]
Recognised regional leids
Naitional leid Japanese
Ethnic groups (2011[2])
Demonym Japanese
Govrenment Unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy
• Emperor
Akihito
Shinzō Abe
Legislatur Naitional Diet
Hoose o Cooncillors
Hoose o Representatives
Formation
11 Februar 660 BC[3]
November 29, 1890
Mey 3, 1947
Aprile 28, 1952
Aurie
• Tot
377,944 km2 (145,925 sq mi)[4] (62nt)
• Watter (%)
0.8
Population
• 2017 estimate
126,659,683[5] (12t)
• 2010 census
126,143,121[6]
• Density
337.1/km2 (873.1/sq mi) (36t)
GDP (PPP) 2013 estimate
• Total
$4.729 trillion[7] (4t)
• Per capita
$37,135[7] (21st)
GDP (nominal) 2013 estimate
• Total
$5.007 trillion[8] (3rd)
• Per capita
$39,321[9] (23rd)
Gini (2008) 37.6[10]
middlin · 76t
HDI (2013) Increase 0.912[11]
very heich · 10th
Siller Yen (¥) / En (JPY)
Time zone JST (UTC+9)
• Summer (DST)
nae observed (UTC+9)
Date format
  • yyyy-mm-dd
  • yyyy年m月d日
  • Era yy年m月d日 (CE−1988)
Drives on the left
Cawin code +81
Internet TLD .jp

Japan (Japanese: 日本 Nippon [nip̚põ̞ɴ] or Nihon [nihõ̞ɴ]; formally 日本国 Aboot this soond Nippon-koku or Nihon-koku, meanin "State o Japan") is a sovereign island naition in Eastren Asie. Locatit in the Paceefic Ocean, it lies off the eastren coast o the Asie Mainland (east o Cheenae, Korea, Roushie) an stretches frae the Sea o Okhotsk in the north tae the East Cheenae Sea an Taiwan in the soothwast.

The kanji that mak up Japan's name mean "sun origin". 日 can be read as ni an means sun while 本 can be read as hon, or pon an means origin. Japan is often referred tae bi the famous epithet "Laund o the Risin Sun" in reference tae its Japanese name.

Japan is a stratovolcanic airchipelago conseestin o aboot 6,852 islands. The fower lairgest are Honshu, Hokkaido, Kyushu an Shikoku, which mak up aboot ninety-seven percent o Japan's laund aurie an eften are referred tae as hame islands. The kintra is dividit intae 47 prefecturs in aicht regions. Hokkaido bein the northrenmost prefectur an Okinawa bein the soothernmaist ane. The population o 127 million is the warld's tent lairgest. Japanese fowk mak up 98.5% o Japan's tot population. Approximately 9.1 million fowk live in the core ceety o Tokyo,[12] the caipital o Japan.

Airchaeological resairch indicates that Japan wis inhaibitit as early as the Upper Paleolithic period. The first written mention o Japan is in Cheenese history texts frae the 1st century AD. Influence frae ither regions, mainly Cheenae, follaed bi periods o isolation, pairteecularly frae Wastren Europe, haes chairacterised Japan's history. Frae the 12t century till 1868, Japan wis ruled bi successive feudal militar shoguns wha ruled in the name o the Emperor.

Japan entered intae a lang period o isolation in the early 17t century, which wis endit in 1853 when a Unitit States fleet pressured Japan tae open tae the Wast. Efter nearly twa decades o internal conflict an insurrection, the Imperial Coort regained its poleetical pouer in 1868 throu the help o several clans frae Chōshū an Satsuma, an the Empire o Japan wis established. In the late 19t an early 20t centuries, victories in the First Sino-Japanese War, the Russo-Japanese War an Warld War I allaed Japan tae expand its empire during a period o increasin militarism.

The Seicont Sino-Japanese War o 1937 expandit intae pairt o World War II in 1941, which came tae an end in 1945 follaein the atomic bombins o Hiroshima an Nagasaki an the Japanese surrender. Syne adoptin its revised constitution on Mey 3, 1947 during the occupation bi the SCAP, Japan haes maintained a unitar pairlamentary constitutional monarchy wi an Emperor an an electit legislatur cried the Naitional Diet.

Japan is a member o the UN, the OECD, the G7, the G8, an the G20 an is conseedert a great pouer.[13][14][15] The kintra haes the warld's third-lairgest economy bi nominal GDP an the warld's foerrth-lairgest economy bi purchasin pouer parity. It is an aa the waarld's fowert-lairgest exporter an fowert-lairgest importer. The kintra benefits frae a heichly skilled wirkforce an is among the maist heichly eddicatit kintras in the warld, wi ane o the heichest percentages o its ceetizens hauldin a tertiary eddication degree.[16]

Awtho Japan haes offeecially renoonced its richt tae declare war, it mainteens a modren militar wi the warld's aicht-lairgest militar budget,[17] uised for sel-defence an peacekeepin roles. Japan is a developed kintra wi a very heich staundart o livin an Human Development Index. Its population enjoys the heichest life expectancy an the third lawest infant mortality rate in the warld.[18][19]

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. "法制執務コラム集「法律と国語・日本語」" (in Japanese). Legislative Bureau of the House of Councillors. Retrieved Januar 19, 2009. 
  2. "World Factbook: Japan". CIA. Retrieved Januar 15, 2011. 
  3. Accordin tae legend, Japan wis foondit on this date bi Emperor Jimmu, the kintra's first emperor.
  4. "Japan Statistical Yearbook 2010" (PDF). Statistics Bureau. p. 17. Retrieved Januar 15, 2011. 
  5. "Japanese population decreases for third year in a row". Retrieved August 9, 2012. 
  6. "Population Count based on the 2010 Census Released" (PDF). Statistics Bureau of Japan. Retrieved October 26, 2011. 
  7. 7.0 7.1 "Japan". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved October 27, 2013. 
  8. "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved Januar 2, 2014. 
  9. "World Economic Outlook Database-October 2013". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved Januar 2, 2014. 
  10. "World Factbook: Gini Index". CIA. Retrieved Mey 11, 2011. 
  11. "Human Development Report 2013" (PDF). UN. 2013. Retrieved Mairch 14, 2013. 
  12. "「東京都の人口(推計)」の概要(平成26年2月1日現在) (2014)". Tokyo Metropolitan Government (JPN). Retrieved Mairch 20, 2014. 
  13. "The Seven Great Powers". American-Interest. Retrieved Julie 1, 2015. 
  14. T. V. Paul; James J. Wirtz; Michel Fortmann (2005). "Great+power" Balance of Power. United States of America: State University of New York Press, 2005. pp. 59, 282. ISBN 0-7914-6401-6.  Accordingly, the great powers after the Cold War are Britain, China, France, Germany, Japan, Russia, and the United States p.59
  15. Baron, Joshua (Januar 22, 2014). Great Power Peace and American Primacy: The Origins and Future of a New International Order. United States: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 1-137-29948-7. 
  16. "OECD.Stat Education and Training > Education at a Glance > Educational attainment and labor-force status > Educational attainment of 25–64 year-olds". OECD. 
  17. "SIPRI Yearbook 2012–15 countries with the highest military expenditure in 2011". Sipri.org. Retrieved Aprile 27, 2013. 
  18. "WHO Life expectancy". World Health Organization. Juin 1, 2013. Retrieved Juin 1, 2013. 
  19. "Table A.17" (PDF). United Nations World Population Prospects, 2006 revision. UN. Retrieved Januar 15, 2011.