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Coordinates: 35°N 136°E / 35°N 136°E / 35; 136


  • 日本国
  • Nippon-koku
  • Nihon-koku

Govrenment Seal o Japan
  • Seal o the Office o the Prime Meenister an the Govrenment o Japan
  • 五七桐 (Go-Shichi no Kiri)
Location o Japan
35°41′N 139°46′E / 35.683°N 139.767°E / 35.683; 139.767
Offeecial leidsNone[1]
Recognised regional leids
Naitional leidJapanese
Ethnic groups
GovrenmentUnitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy
• Emperor
Naruhito (徳仁)
Fumio Kishida (岸田 文雄)
LegislaturNaitional Diet
Hoose o Cooncillors
Hoose o Representatives
11 Februar 660 BC[3]
November 29, 1890
Mey 3, 1947
Aprile 28, 1952
• Total
377,975 km2 (145,937 sq mi)[4] (62nt)
• Water (%)
• 2021 estimate
125,360,000[5] (11t)
• 2020 census
• Density
334/km2 (865.1/sq mi) (36t)
GDP (PPP)2019 estimate
• Total
$5.586 trillion [7] (4t)
• Per capita
$44,585 (27st)
GDP (nominal)2021 estimate
• Tot
$5.378 trillion (3rd)
• Per capita
$42,928 (23rd)
Gini (2018)37.6[8]
medium · 78t
HDI (2019)Increase 0.919[9]
verra heich · 10th
CurrencyYen (¥) / En (JPY)
Time zoneUTC+9 (JST)
• Summer (DST)
UTC+9 (nae observed)
Date format
  • yyyy-mm-dd
  • yyyy年m月d日
  • Era yy年m月d日 (CE−1988)
Drivin sideleft
Cawin code+81
ISO 3166 codeJP
Internet TLD.jp

Japan (Japanese: 日本 Nippon [nip̚põ̞ɴ] or Nihon [nihõ̞ɴ]; formally 日本国 Aboot this soondNippon-koku or Nihon-koku, meanin "State o Japan") is a sovereign island naition in Eastren Asie. Locatit in the Paceefic Ocean, it lies off the eastren coast o the Asie Mainland (east o Cheenae, Korea, Roushie) an stretches frae the Sea o Okhotsk in the north tae the East Cheenae Sea an Taiwan in the soothwast.

The kanji that mak up Japan's name mean "sun origin". 日 can be rade as ni an means sun while 本 can be rade as hon, or pon an means origin. Japan is eften referred tae in the Wast bi the famous epithet "Laund o the Risin Sun" in reference tae its Japanese name.[10]

Japan is a stratovolcanic airchipelago conseestin o aboot 6,852 islands. The fower lairgest are Honshu, Hokkaido, Kyushu an Shikoku, which mak up aboot ninety-seiven percent o Japan's laund aurie an eften are referred tae as hame islands. The kintra is dividit intae 47 prefecturs in aicht regions. Hokkaido bein the normaist prefectur an Okinawa bein the soothmaist yin. The population o 127 million is the warld's tent lairgest. Japanese fowk mak up 98.5% o Japan's tot population. Aboot 9.1 million fowk bide in the core ceety o Tokyo,[11] the caipital o Japan.

Airchaeological resairch indicates that Japan wis inhaibitit as early as the Upper Paleolithic period. The first written mention o Japan is in Cheenese history texts frae the 1st century AD. Influence frae ither regions, mainly Cheenae, follaed bi periods o isolation, pairteecularly frae Wastren Europe, haes chairacterised Japan's history. Frae the 12t yearhunner tae 1868, Japan wis ruled bi successive feudal militar shoguns wha ruled in the name o the Emperor.

Japan entered intae a lang period o isolation in the early 17t century, which wis endit in 1853 when a Unitit States fleet pressured Japan tae open tae the Wast. Efter nearly twa decades o internal conflict an insurrection, the Imperial Coort regained its poleetical pouer in 1868 throu the help o several clans frae Chōshū an Satsuma, an the Empire o Japan wis established. In the late 19t an early 20t centuries, victories in the First Sino-Japanese War, the Russo-Japanese War an Warld War I alloued Japan tae stend its empire during a period o increasin militarism.

The Seicont Sino-Japanese War in 1937 stendit tae pairt o World War II in 1941, which came tae an end in 1945 follaein the atomic bombins o Hiroshima an Nagasaki an the Japanese surrender. Efter adoptin its revised constitution on the 3rd Mey 1947 durin the occupation bi the SCAP, Japan haes maineened a unitar pairlamentary constitutional monarchy wi an Emperor an an electit legislatur cried the Naitional Diet.

Japan is a member o the UN, the OECD, the G7, the G8, an the G20 an is seen as a great pouer.[12][13][14] The kintra haes the warld's third maist muckle economy bi nominal GDP an the warld's fowert maist muckle economy bi purchasin pouer parity. It is an aa the waarld's fowert maist muckle exporter an fowert maist muckle importer. The kintra benefits frae a heichly skilled wirkforce an is amang the maist heichly eddicatit kintras in the warld, wi ane o the heichest percentages o its ceetizens hauldin a tertiary eddication degree.[15]

Awtho Japan haes offeecially taen back its richt tae declare war, it mainteens a modren militar wi the warld's aicht maist muckle militar budget,[16] uised for sel-defence an peacekeepin roles. Japan is a developit kintra wi a very heich staundart o bidin an Human Development Index. Its population injoys the heichest life expectancy an the third lawest infant mortality rate in the warld.[17][18]

Public organisations



  1. "法制執務コラム集「法律と国語・日本語」" (in Japanese). Legislative Bureau of the House of Councillors. Retrieved 19 Januar 2009.
  2. "World Factbook: Japan". CIA. Archived frae the original on 20 December 2015. Retrieved 15 Januar 2011.
  3. Accordin tae legend, Japan wis foondit on this date bi Emperor Jimmu, the kintra's first emperor.
  4. "Japan Statistical Yearbook 2010" (PDF). Statistics Bureau. p. 17. Archived frae the original (PDF) on 22 September 2015. Retrieved 15 Januar 2011.
  5. "Population Estimates Monthly Report July 2021)". Statistics Bureau of Japan. 20 Julie 2021.
  6. "2020 Population Census Preliminary Tabulation". Statistics Bureau of Japan. Retrieved 26 Juin 2021.
  7. "World Economic Outlook database: April 2021". International Monetary Fund. Apryle 2021.
  8. Inequality - Income inequality - OECD Data. OECD. Retrieved 25 Julie 2021.
  9. "Human Development Report 2020" (PDF) (in Inglis). United Nations Development Programme. 15 December 2020. Retrieved 15 December 2020.
  10. Piggott, Joan R. (1997). The emergence of Japanese kingship. Stanford University Press. pp. 143–144. ISBN 978-0-8047-2832-4.
  11. "「東京都の人口(推計)」の概要(平成26年2月1日現在) (2014)". Tokyo Metropolitan Government (JPN). Archived frae the original on 4 Mairch 2016. Retrieved 20 Mairch 2014.
  12. "The Seven Great Powers". American-Interest. Retrieved 1 Julie 2015.
  13. T. V. Paul; James J. Wirtz; Michel Fortmann (2005). "Great+power" Balance of Power. United States of America: State University of New York Press, 2005. pp. 59, 282. ISBN 0-7914-6401-6. Accordingly, the great powers after the Cold War are Britain, China, France, Germany, Japan, Russia, and the United States p.59
  14. Baron, Joshua (22 Januar 2014). Great Power Peace and American Primacy: The Origins and Future of a New International Order. United States: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 1-137-29948-7.
  15. "OECD.Stat Education and Training > Education at a Glance > Educational attainment and labor-force status > Educational attainment of 25–64 year-olds". OECD.
  16. "SIPRI Yearbook 2012–15 countries with the highest military expenditure in 2011". Sipri.org. Archived frae the original on 28 Mairch 2010. Retrieved 27 Apryle 2013.
  17. "WHO Life expectancy". World Health Organization. 1 Juin 2013. Retrieved 1 Juin 2013.
  18. "Table A.17" (PDF). United Nations World Population Prospects 2006 revision. UN. Retrieved 15 Januar 2011.