Azerbaijan

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Republic o Azerbaijan
Azərbaycan Respublikası (Azerbaijani)
Banner o Azerbaijan
Emblem o Azerbaijan
Banner Emblem
Anthem: 
Location o Azerbaijan (green) an Nagorno-Karabakh[1] (licht green).
Location o Azerbaijan (green) an Nagorno-Karabakh[1] (licht green).
Capital Baku
40°25′N 49°50′E / 40.417°N 49.833°E / 40.417; 49.833
Offeecial leids Azerbaijani
Ethnic minority leids Armenian (anerly in Nagorno-Karabakh), Avar, Budukh, Georgie, Juhuri, Khinalug, Kryts, Kurdish, Lezgian, Roushie, Rutul, Talysh, Tat, Tsakhur an Udi
Demonym Azerbaijani
Govrenment Unitary dominant-pairty semi-presidential republic
• Preses
Ilham Aliyev
Mehriban Aliyeva
Artur Rasizade
Legislatur Naitional Assembly
Formation
28 Mey 1918
28 Aprile 1920
• Independence from Soviet Union
30 August 1991 (declared)
18 October 1991 (unthirldom)
25 December 1991 (completit)
• Constitution adopted
12 November 1995
Aurie
• Tot
86,600 km2 (33,400 sq mi) (112t)
• Watter (%)
1.6
Population
• 2016 estimate
9,754,830[2] (89t)
• Density
112.6/km2 (291.6/sq mi) (103rd)
GDP (PPP) 2016 estimate
• Total
$167.905 billion[3]
• Per capita
$17,688[3]
GDP (nominal) 2016 estimate
• Total
$35.686  billion[3]
• Per capita
$3,759[3]
Gini (2008) 33.7[4]
middlin
HDI (2013) 0.751[5]
heich · 76th
Siller Manat (₼) (AZN)
Time zone AZT (UTC+04)
Drives on the richt
Cawin code +994
Internet TLD .az

Azerbaijan (Azerbaijani: Azərbaycan), offeecially the Republic o Azerbaijan (Azerbaijani: Azərbaycan Respublikası) is the lairgest kintra in the Sooth Caucasus region o Eurasie. Locatit at the crossroads o Eastren Europe an Wastren Asie,[6] it is boondit bi the Caspian Sea tae the east, Roushie tae the north, Georgie tae the northwast, Armenie tae the wast, an Iran tae the sooth.

The exclave o Nakhchivan is boondit bi Armenie tae the north an east, Iran tae the sooth an wast, while haein a short borderline wi Turkey tae the northwast. The enclaves o Karki, Yuxarı Əskipara, Barxudarlı an Sofulu are surroondit bi Armenie an hae been controlled bi it since the Nagorno-Karabakh War. The majority-Armenian populatit Nagorno-Karabakh region in the southwest of Azerbaijan declared itself independent frae Azerbaijan in 1991, but it is no diplomatically recognised bi ony naition an is still considered a de jure pairt o Azerbaijan, being occupied bi Armenian forces.[7][8][9][10]

Azerbaijan Democratic Republic wis the first successful attempt tae establish a democratic an secular republic in the Muslim warld.[11][12] Nouadays Azerbaijan, a naition wi a majority Turkic[13][14] an Shi‘ite Muslim[15] population, is a secular an a unitary republic wi an ancient an historic cultural heritage. Azerbaijan haes diplomatic relations wi 158 kinrtas so far an haulds membership in 38 internaitional organizations.[16] Azerbaijan is ane o the foondin members o GUAM an the Organisation for the Prohibition o Chemical Weapons, an joined the Commonwealth o Independent States in September 1993.[17] On 9 Mey 2006 Azerbaijan wis electit tae membership in the newly established Human Richts Council bi the Unitit Naitions General Assembly. The term o office began on 19 Juin 2006.[18] A Special Envoy of the European Commission is present in the kintra, which is an' a' a member o the Unitit Naitions, the OSCE, the Council o Europe, an the NATO Partnership for Peace (PfP) program. The kintra an aa haulds observer status in the Non-Aligned Movement an Warld Tred Organisation an is a correspondent at the Internaitional Telecommunication Union.[16]

Etymology o the name[eedit | eedit soorce]

Azerbaijan is ane o the sax independent Turkic States as o 1991.

The name o Azerbaijan derives frae Atropates,[19][20] a Persian[21][22][23][24][25] satrap unner the Achaemenid Empire, that wis later reinstatit as the satrap o Media unner Alexander the Great.[26][27] The oreeginal etymology o this name is thought tae hae its roots in the ancient Iranian releegion o Zoroastrianism. In the Avesta, Frawardin Yasht ("Hymn tae the Guardian Angels"), there is a mention o âterepâtahe ashaonô fravashîm ýazamaide, which literally translates frae Avestan as "we worship the Fravashi o the holy Atare-pata".[28]

Atropates ruled ower the region o Atropatene (present-day Iranian Azerbaijan). The name "Atropates" itself is the Greek transliteration o an Auld-Iranian, probably Median, compoondit name wi the meanin "Protectit bi the (Holy) Fire". The Greek name is mentioned bi Diodorus Siculus an Strabo, an it is continued as ādurbādagān in the Middle Persian geographical text Shahrestānihā i Erānshahr.[29] The wird is translatable as baith "the treasury" an "the treasurer" o fire in Modern Persian.

Notes[eedit | eedit soorce]

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. The Nagorno-Karabakh Republic is a de facto independent state that is lairgely recognised as de jure pairt o Azerbaijan.
  2. "Azərbaycanda Əhalinin Sayı Açıqlandı" [Population of Azerbaijan Announced] (in Azerbaijani). 15 December 2014. 
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 "Azerbaijan". International Monetary Fund. 
  4. "Gini Index". World Bank. Retrieved 2 Mairch 2011. 
  5. "Human Development Index, 2012 Update". United Nations. 2011. Archived frae the original on 21 Januar 2012. Retrieved 15 Juin 2012. 
  6. Azerbaijan mey be considered tae be in Asie an/or Europe. The UN classification o warld regions places Azerbaijan in Wastern Asie; the CIA World Factbook CIA.gov, NationalGeographic.com, an Encyclopædia Britannica an' a' place Georgie in Asie. Conversely, numerous sources place Azerbaijan in Europe such as the BBC NEWS.bbc.co.uk, Oxford Reference Online OxfordReference.com, Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, and www.worldatlas.com.
  7. Резолюция СБ ООН № 822 от 30 апреля 1993 года
  8. Резолюция СБ ООН № 853 от 29 июля 1993 года
  9. Резолюция СБ ООН № 874 14 октября 1993 года
  10. Резолюция СБ ООН № 884 от 12 ноября 1993 года
  11. Tadeusz Swietochowski. Russia and Azerbaijan: A Borderland in Transition. Columbia University Press, 1995. ISBN 0-231-07068-3, 9780231070683, p.69.
  12. Reinhard Schulze. A Modern History of the Islamic World. I.B.Tauris, 2000. ISBN 1-86064-822-3, 9781860648229.[page needit]
  13. "Country Profile: Azerbaijan". British Foreign & Commonwealth Office (FCO). 2009. Archived frae the original on 2008-04-10. Retrieved 2009-07-07. 
  14. "Azerbaijan". World Factbook. CIA. 2009. Retrieved 2009-06-04. 
  15. "Azerbaijan". Background Note. U.S. Department of State. 2009. Retrieved 2009-06-04. 
  16. 16.0 16.1 "AUK Foreign Office – Country Profiles: Azerbaijan". FCO.gov.uk. Archived frae the original on 2003-07-31. Retrieved 2007-05-26. 
  17. "US State Department 1993 Country Reports on Economic Practice and Trade Reports: Azerbaijan". 
  18. "Elections & Appointments – Human Rights Council". Un.org. Retrieved 2009-01-03. 
  19. Minorsky, V.; Minorsky, V. "Ādharbaydjān (Azarbāydjān )." Encyclopaedia of Islam. Edited by: P.Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs. Brill, 2007. Brill Online. EncIslam.brill.nl.
  20. Encyclopedia Iranica, "Azerbaijan: Pre-Islamic History", K. Shippmann.
  21. Miniature Empires: A Historical Dictionary of the Newly Independent States by James Minahan, published in 2000, page 20
  22. Lendering, Jona. "Atropates (Biography)". Livius.org. Retrieved 2007-12-10. 
  23. Chamoux, Francois. Hellenistic Civilization. Blackwell Publishing, published 2003, page 26
  24. Bosworth, A.B., and Baynham, E.J. Alexander the Great in Fact and Fiction. Oxford, published 2002, page 92
  25. Encyclopedia Iranica, "Azerbaijan: Pre-Islamic History", K. Shippmann
  26. Chaumont, M. L. (1989). "Atropates". Encyclopaedia Iranica. 3.1. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. 
  27. Historical Dictionary of Azerbaijan by Tadeusz Swietochowski and Brian C. Collins. The Scarecrow Press, Inc., Lanham, Maryland (1999), ISBN 0-8108-3550-9. Retrieved 7 June 2006.
  28. "Frawardin Yasht ("Hymn to the Guardian Angels") – translated by James Darmesteter (From Sacred Books of the East, American Edition, 1898)". 
  29. ed. Touraj Daryaee, Mazda Publishers, Costa Mesa 2002.