Iran

Frae Wikipedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Islamic Republic o Iran

جمهوری اسلامی ایران (Persie)
Jomhuri-ye Eslāmi-ye Irān
Motto: 
استقلال، آزادی، جمهوری اسلامی
Esteqlāl, Āzādi, Jomhuri-ye Eslāmi
Anthem
سرود ملی جمهوری اسلامی ایران
Sorud-e Melli-ye Jomhuri-ye Eslāmi-ye Irān
("Naitional Anthem o the Islamic Republic o Iran")
Location o Iran
Caipital
and largest city
Tehran
35°41′N 51°25′E / 35.683°N 51.417°E / 35.683; 51.417
Offeecial leidsPersie
Recognised regional leids
Releegion
Offeecial:
Islam (Shia)
Ither recognised releegions:
Demonym(s)Iranian, Persie
Govrenmentde jure:
Islamic Republic
de facto:
Theocratic-republican hybrid; unitar presidential republic subject tae a Supreme Leader[2]
Ali Khamenei
• Preses
Hassan Rouhani
Ali Larijani
Sadeq Larijani
LegislaturIslamic Consultative Assembly
Unification
c. 678 BC
550 BC
247 BC
224 AD[3]
1501[4]
1 Apryle 1979
24 October 1979
28 Julie 1989
Aurie
• Total
1,648,195 km2 (636,372 sq mi) (17t)
• Water (%)
0.7
Population
• 2016 estimate
82,800,000[5] (18t)
• Density
48/km2 (124.3/sq mi) (162nt)
GDP (PPP)2017 estimate
• Total
$1.551 trillion[6] (18t)
• Per capita
$19,050[6]
GDP (nominal)2017 estimate
• Tot
$438.3 billion[6] (27t)
• Per capita
$5,383[6]
Gini (2013)37.4[7]
medium
HDI (2014)Increase 0.766[8]
heich · 69t
CurrencyRial (ریال) (IRR)
Time zoneUTC+3:30 (IRST)
• Summer (DST)
UTC+4:30 (IRDT)
Date formatyyyy/mm/dd (SH)
Drivin sidericht
Cawin code+98
ISO 3166 codeIR
Internet TLD

Iran, kent offeecially as the Islamic Republic o Iran, is a kintra in Wastren Asie.[10][11] Wi ower 81 million indwallers,[12] Iran is the warld's 18t maist populous kintra.[13] Comprisin a laund aurie o 1,648,195 km2 (636,372 sq mi), it is the seicont lairgest kintra in the Middle East an the 17t lairgest in the warld. Iran is mairchit tae the northwast bi Armenie an the Republic o Azerbaijan,[lower-alpha 1] tae the north bi the Caspian Sea, tae the northeast bi Turkmenistan, tae the east bi Afghanistan an Pakistan, tae the sooth bi the Persie Gulf an the Gulf o Oman, an tae the wast bi Turkey an Iraq. The kintra's central location in Eurasie an Wastren Asia, an its proximity tae the Strait o Hormuz, gie it geostrategic importance.[14] Tehran is the kintra's caipital an lairgest ceety, as weel as its leadin economic an cultural centre.

Iran is hame tae ane o the warld's auldest ceevilisations,[15][16] beginnin wi the formation o the Elamite kinricks in the fowert millennium BCE. It wis first unifee'd bi the Iranian Medes in the seivent century BCE,[17] reachin its greatest territorial size in the saxt century BCE, whan Cyrus the Great foondit the Achaemenid Empire, that stretched frae Eastern Europe tae the Indus Valley, acomin ane o the lairgest empires in history.[18] The Iranian realm fell tae Alexander the Great in the fowert century BCE an wis dividit intae several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminatit in the establishment o the Parthian Empire, that wis succeedit in the third century CE bi the Sasanian Empire, a leadin warld pouer for the next fower centuries.[19][20]

Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seivent century CE. The Islamisation o Iran led tae the decline o Zoroastrianism, that wis bi then the kintra's dominant releegion, an Iran's major contreibutions tae airt an science spreid within the Muslim rule in the Islamic Gowden Age. Efter twa centuries, a period o various native Muslim dynasties begoud, that were later conquered bi the Seljuq Turks an the Ilkhanate Mongols. The rise o the Safavids in the 15t century led tae the reestablishment o a unifee'd Iranian state an naitional identity,[21] wi the kintra's conversion tae Shia Islam merkin a turnin point in Iranian an Muslim history.[4][22] Unner Nader Shah, Iran wis ane o the maist pouerfu states in the 18t century,[23] tho bi the 19t century, a series o conflicts wi the Russian Empire led tae signeeficant territorial losses.[24][25] The Iranian Constitutional Revolution in the early 20t century led tae the establishment of a constitutional monarchy an the kintra's first legislatur. A 1953 coup instigatit bi the Unitit Kinrick an the Unitit States resultit in greater autocracy an growin Wastren poleetical influence.[26] Subsequent widespreid dissatisfaction an unrest against the monarchy led tae the 1979 Revolution an the establishment o an Islamic republic,[27] a poleetical seestem that includes elements o a pairlamentar democracy vettit an supervised bi a theocracy govrened bi an autocratic "Supreme Leader".[28] In the 1980s, the kintra wis engaged in a war wi Iraq, that lastit for awmaist nine years an resultit in a heich nummer o casualties an economic losses for baith sides.

The sovereign state o Iran is a foondin member o the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, an OPEC. It is a major regional an middle pouer,[29][30] an its lairge reserves o fossil fuels – that include the warld's lairgest naitural gas supply an the fowert lairgest pruiven ile reserves[31][32] – exert conseederable influence in internaitional energy security an the warld economy.

The kintra's rich cultural legacy is reflectit in pairt bi its 22 UNESCO Warld Heritage steids, the third lairgest nummer in Asie an 11t lairgest in the warld.[33] Iran is a multicultural kintra comprisin numerous ethnic an lingueestic groups, the lairgest bein Persies (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), an Lurs (6%).[34]

Notes[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Includin the de facto independent, but unrecognised Republic o Artsakh.

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. http://www.ethnologue.org/show_country.asp?name=IR.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  2. Buchta, Wilfried. "Taking Stock of a Quarter Century of the Islamic Republic of Iran" (PDF). Harvard Law School. Harvard Law School. Retrieved 2 November 2015. [...] the Islamic Republic’s political system, a theocratic-republican hybrid [...] 
  3. Alireza Shapur Shahbazi (2005), "The History of the Idea of Iran", in Vesta Curtis ed., Birth of the Persian Empire, IB Tauris, London, p. 108: "Similarly the collapse of Sassanian Eranshahr in AD 650 did not end Iranians' national idea. The name 'Iran' disappeared from official records of the Saffarids, Samanids, Buyids, Saljuqs and their successor. But one unofficially used the name Iran, Eranshahr, and similar national designations, particularly Mamalek-e Iran or "Iranian lands", which exactly translated the old Avestan term Ariyanam Daihunam. On the other hand, when the Safavids (not Reza Shah, as is popularly assumed) revived a national state officially known as Iran, bureaucratic usage in the Ottoman empire and even Iran itself could still refer to it by other descriptive and traditional appellations".
  4. 4.0 4.1 Andrew J. Newman (21 April 2006). Safavid Iran: Rebirth of a Persian Empire. I.B.Tauris. ISBN 978-1-86064-667-6. Retrieved 21 June 2013.  Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Andrew J. Newman 2006" defined multiple times wi different content
  5. "The World Factbook — Central Intelligence Agency". Archived frae the oreeginal on 3 February 2012. 
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects". 
  7. "GINI index (World Bank estimate)". Data.worldbank.org. Retrieved 29 November 2015. 
  8. "Human Development Report 2015" (PDF). United Nations. 2015. Retrieved 15 December 2015. 
  9. Jeroen Temperman (2010). State-Religion Relationships and Human Rights Law: Towards a Right to Religiously Neutral Governance. BRILL. pp. 87–. ISBN 90-04-18148-2. The official motto of Iran is Takbir ("God is the Greatest" or "God is Great"). Transliteration Allahu Akbar. As referred to in art. 18 of the constitution of Iran (1979). The de facto motto however is: "Independence, freedom, the Islamic Republic." 
  10. ""CESWW" – Definition of Central Eurasia". Cesww.fas.harvard.edu. Archived frae the oreeginal on 5 August 2010. Retrieved 1 August 2010. 
  11. "Iran Guide". National Geographic. 14 June 2013. Archived frae the oreeginal on 12 December 2009. Retrieved 21 June 2013. 
  12. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named amar.org.ir
  13. "National Census Preliminary Results Released: Iran's Urban Population Up". Financial Tribune (in Inglis). 2017-03-13. Retrieved 2017-05-28. 
  14. "Iran's Strategy in the Strait of Hormuz". The Diplomat. Archived frae the oreeginal on 8 December 2015. Retrieved 29 November 2015. 
  15. Whatley, Christopher (2001). Bought and Sold for English Gold: The Union of 1707. Tuckwell Press. 
  16. Lowell Barrington (January 2012). Comparative Politics: Structures and Choices, 2nd ed.tr: Structures and Choices. Cengage Learning. p. 121. ISBN 978-1-111-34193-0. Retrieved 21 June 2013. 
  17. Encyclopædia Britannica. "Encyclopædia Britannica Encyclopedia Article: Media ancient region, Iran". Britannica.com. Retrieved 25 August 2010. 
  18. David Sacks; Oswyn Murray; Lisa R. Brody; Oswyn Murray; Lisa R. Brody (2005). Encyclopedia of the ancient Greek world. Infobase Publishing. pp. 256 (at the right portion of the page). ISBN 978-0-8160-5722-1. Retrieved 17 August 2016. 
  19. Stillman, Norman A. (1979). The Jews of Arab Lands. Jewish Publication Society. p. 22. ISBN 0827611552. 
  20. Jeffreys, Elizabeth; Haarer, Fiona K. (30 September 2006). Proceedings of the 21st International Congress of Byzantine Studies: London, 21–26 August, 2006, Volume 1. Ashgate Publishing. p. 29. ISBN 075465740X. 
  21. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Sarkhosh
  22. Savory, R. M. "Safavids". Encyclopaedia of Islam (2nd ed.). 
  23. Axworthy, Door Michael (2006). The Sword of Persia: Nader Shah, from Tribal Warrior to Conquering Tyrant. ISBN 9780857721938. Retrieved 27 May 2014. 
  24. Fisher et al. 1991, pp. 329–330.
  25. Dowling, Timothy C. (2 December 2014). Russia at War: From the Mongol Conquest to Afghanistan, Chechnya, and Beyond. ABC-CLIO. pp. 728–730. ISBN 1598849484. 
  26. Cordesman, Anthony H. (1999). Iran's Military Forces in Transition: Conventional Threats and Weapons of Mass Destruction. p. 22. ISBN 9780275965297. 
  27. "Iran". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica. 2012. Retrieved 8 August 2012. 
  28. قانون اساسی جمهوری اسلامی ایران (in Persian). Archived frae the oreeginal on 10 April 2008. Retrieved 23 January 2008. 
  29. The Committee Office, House of Commons. "Select Committee on Foreign Affairs, Eighth Report, Iran". Publications.parliament.uk. Retrieved 18 June 2011. 
  30. "Iran @ 2000 and Beyond lecture series, opening address, W. Herbert Hunt, 18 May 2000". Archived frae the oreeginal on 3 January 2010. Retrieved 21 June 2013. 
  31. "UPDATE 3-BP cuts global gas reserves estimate, mostly for Russia". Reuters.com. 2013. Retrieved 29 November 2015. 
  32. CIA World Factbook. "Iran". Retrieved 24 May 2018. 
  33. "World Heritage List". UNESCO. 
  34. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named worldfactbook


Coordinates: 32°N 53°E / 32°N 53°E / 32; 53