Gagauzie

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Găgăuzia
Gagauz Yeri
Гагаузия
Banner Seal
(Banner) (Seal)
Gagauzia map.svg
Caipital (an lairgest ceety) Comrat
Offeecial leid Gagauz, Moldovan, Roushie
Govrenment 
 - Govrenor
 -  Chairman o the Fowkassembly
Parliamentary seestem
Mihail Formuzal
Ana Harlamenco  
Aurie
 - Tot

1,832 km2 km²
707 sq mi
Population
 - 2010 Estimate
 
160,700
Foondin
 - Creatit
23 December 1994
Siller Moldovan leu (MDL)
Time zone UTC +2, Simmer: UTC +3
Naitional anthem Tarafim

Gagauzie (Gagauz: Gagauziya or Gagauz Yeri; Romanie: Găgăuzia; Roushie: Гагаузия ), formally kent as the Autonomous Territorial Unit o Gagauzie (Gagauz Yeri) (Gagauz: Avtonom Territorial Bölümlüü Gagauz Yeri, Romanie: Unitatea Teritorială Autonomă Găgăuzia, Roushie: Автономное территориальное образование Гагаузия / Avtonomnoe territorial'noe obrazovanie Gagauziya), is an autonomous region o Moldovae. Its name comes frae the wird, "Gagauz", whilk in turn maist likely comes frae the name, Gok-oguz, whilk refers tae descendants o the Oghuz tribe o Turkey.

History[eedit | eedit soorce]

Accordin tae some theories, the Gagauz people descend frae the Seljuq Turks that settled in Dobruja, or frae Pechenegs, Uz (Oghuz) an Cuman (Kipchak) people that followed the Anatolian Seljuq Sultan Izzeddin Keykavus II (1236–1276). Mair specifically, ane clan of Oghuz Turks migrated tae the Balkans during the inter-tribal conflicts wi ither Turks. This Oghuz Turk clan converted frae Islam tae Orthodox Christianity efter settling in the Eastern Balkans (in Bulgaria) an war cried Gagauz Turks.[citation needit] A lairge group of the Gagauz later left Bulgaria an settled in soothren Bessarabia, alang wi a group of ethnic Bulgarians.

Accordin tae ither theories Gagauz are descendants of linguistically Turkified Bulgarians.[1] In the offeecial Gagauz museum, a plaque mentions that ane of the twa main theories is that thay descend frae the Bulgars.

Roushie Empire[eedit | eedit soorce]

In 1812, Bessarabie, previously the eastren half of the Principality o Moldavie, became pairt of the Russian Empire, an Nogai tribes that inhabited several villages in sooth Bessarabia (or Budjak) war forced tae leave. Between 1812 an 1846, Roushies settled the Gagauz people frae what is nowadays eastren Bulgaria (whilk remained unner Ottoman Empire) tae the orthodox Bessarabia, mainly in the settlements vacate bi the Nogai tribes. Thay settled thare in parallel wi Bessarabian Bulgarians in Avdarma, Comrat, Congaz, Tomai, Cişmichioi, an ither umwhile Nogai veellages. Some Gagauz war settled in the pairt o the Principality of Moldavia that didna come unner Russian control in 1812, but athin several years veellage bi veellage muived tae the compact aurie thay indwell the day in the sooth o Bessarabia.

Wi the exception o a five-day de facto unthirldom in the winter of 1906, whan a peasant uprising declared an autonomous Republic of Comrat, Gagauzians haes been ruled bi the Russian Empire (1812–1917), Romania (1918–1940 an 1941–1944), the Soviet Union (1940–1941 an 1944–1991), an Moldova (1917–1918 an 1991 tae date).

USSR[eedit | eedit soorce]

Gagauz nationalism remained an intellectual muivement in the 1980s, but strengthened bi the end o the decade, as the Soviet Union began tae embrace democratic ideals. In 1988, activists frae the local intelligentsia aligned wi ither ethnic minorities tae create a movement kent as the "Gagauz People". A year later, the "Gagauz People" held its first assembly in whilk a resolution wis passed tae demand the creation an autonomous territory in soothren Moldova, wi the ceety of Comrat as its caipital. The Gagauzian naitional movement intensified whan Romanian wis acceptit as the offeecial leid of the Republic of Moldova in August 1989, replacing Russian, the offeecial leid o the USSR. A pairt of the multiethnic population of southren Moldova regarded this decision wi concern, precipitating a lack o confidence in the central govrenment in Chişinău. The Gagauz war fashin aboot the implications for them if Moldova reunited wi Romania, as seemed lik at the time. In August 1990, Comrat declared itsel an autonomous republic, but the Moldovan govrenment annulled the declaration as unconstitutional. At that time, Stepan Topal emerged as the leader of the Gagauz naitional movement.

Independent Moldovae[eedit | eedit soorce]

Cairt o Gagauzie.
Walcome tae Gagauzie sign

Support for the Soviet Union remained heich, wi a referendum in Mairch 1991 returning an awmaist unanimous vote in favour of remainin pairt of the USSR. Mony Gagauz supported the Moscow coup attempt in August 1991, an Gagauzia declared itself independent on 19 August 1991, followed in September bi Transnistria, thus further straining relations wi Chişinău. Houiver, when the Moldovan parliament voted on whether Moldova should acome independent on 27 August 1991, sax of the twelve Gagauz deputies in Moldovan parliament voted in favour, while the ither sax did nae participate. Eventually, the Moldovan govrenment toned doun its pro-Romanian stance an paid mair attention tae minority rights[citation needit].

In Februar 1994, Preses Mircea Snegur promised the Gagauz autonomy, but he wis against outright unthirldom. He wis an aa opposed tae the suggestion that Moldova acome a federal state made up of three republics, Moldova, Gagauzia, an Transnistria.

In 1994, the Parliament of Moldova awairdit tae "the people of Gagauzia" (throu the adoption of the new Constitution of Moldova) the right of "external sel-determination". On 23 December 1994, the Parliament of the Republic of Moldova acceptit the "Law on the Special Legal Status of Gagauzia" (Gagauz: Gagauz Yeri), resolving the dispute peacefully. This date is nou a Gagauz holiday. Gagauzia is nou a "national-territorial autonomous unit" wi three offeecial leids, Romanian, Gagauz, an Russian.

Three ceeties an twenty-three communes war included in the Autonomous Gagauz Territory: aw localities wi ower 50% Gagauz, an those localities wi atween 40% an 50% Gagauz which expressed thair desire tae be included as a result of referendums tae determine Gagauzia's borders. In 1995, Georgi Tabunshik wis elected tae serve as the Governor (Romanian: Guvernator, Gagauz: Bashkan) of Gagauzia for a fower-year term, as war the deputies of the local parliament, "The People's Assembly"(Gagauz:"Halk Toplushu"), wi Petr Pashali as chairman.

Dmitrii Croitor won the 1999 Governor elections an began tae mak uise of the rights granted tae the Governor bi the 1994 agreement. The central authorities of Moldova proved unwilling tae accept the results initiating a lengthy staund-off atween the autonomy an Chişinău. Finally Croitor resigned in 2002 due tae the pressure frae the Moldovan govrenment which accused him of abuse of authority, relations wi the separatist authorities of Transnistria an ither charges. The central electoral commission of Gagauzia did nae register Croitor as a candidate for the post of the Governor in the subsequent elections an Gheorgi Tabunshik wis elected in what wis describit as unfair elections.[2][3]

The present Govrenor o Gagauzie is Mihail Formuzal (frae 2006).

Geography[eedit | eedit soorce]

Gagauzia is dividit intae three destricts. It is split intae fower enclaves. The main, central enclave includes the ceeties Comrat an Ceadîr-Lunga an is dividit intae twa destricts wi those ceeties servin as admeenistrative centers. The seicont lairgest enclave is locatit aroond the ceety o Vulcăneşti, while twa smawer enclaves are the veelages o Copceac an Carbalia. The veelage o Carbalia faws unner admeenistration o Vulcanesti, while Copceac is pairt o Ceadir-Lunga destrict.

Admeenistrative diveesions[eedit | eedit soorce]

Gagauzie consists o ane municipality, twa ceeties, an twinty-three communes containin a tot o thirty-twa localities.[4]

Offeecial name Gagauz name % Gagauzians
Comrat (municipality) 72.8%
Ceadîr-Lunga (city) Çadır-Lunga 73.7%
Vulcăneşti (city)
Vulcăneşti, loc. st. c. f.
69.4%
22.5%
Avdarma 94.2%
Baurci Baurçi 97.9%
Beşalma 96.7%
Beşghioz
(Beş-Ghioz)
Beşgöz 93.0%
Bugeac Bucak 61.8%
Carbalia Kırbaalı 70.2%
Offeecial name Gagauz name % Gagauzians
Cazaclia Kazayak 96.5%
Chioselia Rusă (Chioselia Mică) Köseli Rus 25.2%
Chiriet-Lunga Kiriyet-Lunga 92.6%
Chirsova Kirsova 45.6%
Cioc-Maidan Çokmeydan 93.1%
Cişmichioi (Cişmechioi) Çeşmeköy 94.4%
Congaz Kongaz 96.1%
Congazcicul de Sus (Congazul-Mic)
Congazcicul de Jos
Duduleşti
73.4%
87.2%
4.4%
Copceac
(Tatar-Copceac)
Kıpçak 95.0%
Offeecial name Gagauz name % Gagauzians
Cotovscoe (Cârlăneni) Kırlannar 95.4%
Dezghingea (Dezghinge) Dezgincä 94.5%
Etulia
Etulia Nouă
Etulia, loc. st. c. f.
92.7%
83.1%
94.5%
Ferapontievca (Feraponteanca) 28.0%
Gaidar (Gaidari) Haydar 96.5%
Joltai (Djoltai) Coltay 96.0%
Svetlîi (Deneviţa)
Alexeevca (Alexeeni)
35.4%
33.5%
Tomai Tomay 95.1%

Politics[eedit | eedit soorce]

The autonomy of Gagauzia is guaranteed bi the Moldovan constitution an regulated bi the 1994 Gagauz Autonomy Act. If Moldova decidit tae unite wi Romania, Gagauzia would hae the right of self-determination.[5][6] The Gagauzian People's Assembly (Adunarea Populară; Gagauz: Halk Topluşu) haes a mandate for lawmaking powers within its ain jurisdiction. This includes laws on eddication, cultur, local development, budgetary an taxation issues, social security, an questions of territorial admeenistration. The People's Assembly an aa haes twa special powers: it mey participate in the formulation of Moldova's internal an foreign policy; an, should central regulations interfere wi the jurisdiction of Gagauz-Yeri, it haes the right of appeal tae Moldova's Constitutional Court.

The heichest offeecial of Gagauzia, who heads the executive power structur, is the Governor of Gagauzia (Romanian: Guvernatorul Găgăuziei; Gagauz: Bashkan). He or she is elected bi popular suffrage for a fower-year term. He haes power ower aw public administrative bodies of Gagauzia, an is an aa a member of the Govrenment of the Republic of Moldova. Eligibility for governorship requires fluency in the Gagauz leid, Moldovan citizenship, an a minimum age of 35 years.

Permanent executive power in Gagauz-Yeri is exercised bi the Executive Committee (Comitetul Executiv or Bakannik Komiteti). Its members are appyntit bi the Governor, or bi a simple majority vote in the Assembly at its first session. The Committee ensures the application of the laws of the Republic of Moldova an those of the Assembly of Gagauz-Yeri.

As pairt o its autonomy, Gagauzie haes its awn polis force.[7]

Gagauz Khalky is a umwhile Gagauz separatist poleetical pairty, nou ootlawed.

Elections[eedit | eedit soorce]

Durin the last three elections AEI increase o 872.4%

Parliament elections results
Year AEI PCRM
2010 23.44% 13,380 59.97% 34,224
Julie 2009 11.32% 6,482 77.78% 44,549
Aprile 2009 2.43% 1,376 63.69% 36,094
[discuss] – [edit]
Summary of 28 November 2010 Parliament o Moldovae election results in Gagauzie
Pairties an coalitions Votes % +/−
Pairty o Communists o the Republic o Moldovae 34,224 59.97 −17.81
Democratic Pairty o Moldovae 9,115 15,97 +10.09
Humanist Pairty o Moldovae 3,722 6.52 +6.52
Social Democratic Pairty 3,686 6.46 -3.41
Leeberal Democratic Pairty o Moldovae 3,581 6.27 +4.99
Ither Pairty 2,770 4.81 -0.38
Tot (turnoot 51.36%) 57,596 100.00


Economy[eedit | eedit soorce]

The base of the Gagauzian economy is agriculture, parteecularly viticulture. The main export products are wine, sunflower oil, non-alcoholic beverages, wool, leather an textiles. Thare are twelve wineries, processing ower 400,000 tonnes annually. Thare are an aa twa oil factories, twa carpet factories, ane meat factory, an ane non-alcoholic beverages factory.

Transport[eedit | eedit soorce]

Thare are 451 kilometers o roads in Gagauzie, o which 82% are pavit. Turkey loaned Moldovae 35 million dollars tae impruive Gagauzie's road netwirk.

Demographics[eedit | eedit soorce]

Accordin tae 1 Januar 2011 census, Gagauzie haed a population o 160,700, o which 40,4% urban an 59.6% rural population.

  • Births (2010): 2042 (12.7 per 1000)
  • Daiths (2010): 1868 (11.6 per 1000)
  • Growth Rate (2010): 174 (1.1 per 1000)

Ethnic composition[eedit | eedit soorce]

Accordin tae the 2004 census results, the ethnic brakdoun in Gagauzie wis:[8]

Ethnic group Population Percent o tot
Gagauz 127,835 82.1%
Bulgaries 8,013 5.1%
Moldovans 7,481 4.8%
Roushies 5,941 3.8%
Ukrainians 4,919 3.2%
Romanies 38 0.0%
Ithers 1,409 0.9%

Releegion[eedit | eedit soorce]

Thare is an ongoin controversy ower whether Romanies an Moldovans are the same ethnic group. At the census, ivery ceetizen coud anerlie declare ane naitionality. Consequently, ane coud no declare anesel baith Moldovan an Romanie. The combined figur for Moldovans (Romanies) is 7,519 (4.85%).

Cultur an education[eedit | eedit soorce]

Gagauzia haes fifty-five schuils, the Comrat Pedagogical College (heich schuil+twa years ower heich schuil), an Comrat State University (Universitatea de Stat din Comrat[9]). Turkey financit the creation o a Turkis cultural centre (Türk İşbirliği Ve Kalkınma İdaresi Başkanlığı) an a Turkis library (Atatürk Kütüphanesi). In the veelage o Beşalma, thare is a Gagauz historical an ethnographical museum established bi Dmitrii Kara Coban.

Despite declarin Gagauz as the naitional leid o the Autonomy, the local authorities dae no provide ony full Gagauz-teachin schuil, maist o those are Roushie-leid as opposed tae inner Moldovan full Romanie leid eddication.[10] Tho introducin tae aw fower uisual for schuil leids (Roushie, Romanie, Inglis or French, Gagauz), the local ane stays in the last place.[11]

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Стойков, Руси. Селища и демографски облик в Североизточна България и Южна Добруджа, Известия на Варненското археологическо дружество, т. ХV, 1964, с. 98.
  2. Information on previous elections of Governor of Gagauz ATU (Inglis) (Roushie) (Romanie))
  3. Moldova Strategic Conflict Assessment (SCA), Stuart Hensel, Economist Intelligence Unit.
  4. (Romanie) Organic Law No. 292-XIV (see Annex 4), Republic of Moldova, 19 February 1999.
  5. East - West Working Group. Levente Benkö. Autonomy in Gagauzia: A Precedent for Central and Eastern Europe?
  6. "Opinion on the Law on Modification and Addition in the Constitution of the Republic of Moldova in Particular Concerning the Status of Gagauzia". Council of Europe. 2002. Archived frae the original on 2012-12-12. Retrieved 2007-11-24. 
  7. (Romanie) Moldovan law on the special legal status o Gagauzie
  8. 2004 census results
  9. Comrat, str. Galaţan, 17, tel: (0-298) 2-43-45
  10. http://meridian-info.com/v2/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=490&Itemid=55&lang=russian
  11. http://www.gagauzi.ru/2009-09-22-17-54-41/65-panorama/75-2009-09-23-00-50-30

Further readin[eedit | eedit soorce]

  • Shabashov A.V., 2002, Odessa, Astroprint, "Gagauzes: terms of kinship system and origin of the people", (Шабашов А.В., "Гагаузы: система терминов родства и происхождение народа")
  • Chinn, Jeff; Steven D. Roper (1998). "Territorial autonomy in Gagauzia". Nationalities Papers 26 (1): 87–101. doi:10.1080/00905999808408552.  Unkent parameter |month= ignored (help); Cite uises deprecatit parameter |coauthors= (help)

External links[eedit | eedit soorce]

Coordinates: 46°18′59″N 28°39′59″E / 46.31639°N 28.66639°E / 46.31639; 28.66639