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Cuman-Kipchak confederation in Eurasia circa 1200

The Cumans (Polovtsi) were a Turkic[1] [2][3][4]:116 nomadic folk comprising the western branch o the Cuman-Kipchak confederation. After the Mongol invasion (1237), many sought asylum in Hungary,[5] as many Cumans had settled in Hungary, Bulgaria, and Turkey before the invasion.[6][7]:2[8]:283

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Encyclopædia Britannica Online - Cuman
  2. Robert Lee Wolff: "The 'Second Bulgarian Empire.' Its Origin and History to 1204" Speculum, Volume 24, Issue 2 (April 1949), 179; "Thereafter, the influx of Pechenegs and Cumans turned Bulgaria into a battleground between Byzantium and these Turkish tribes..."
  3. Bartusis, Mark C. (1997). The Late Byzantine Army: Arms and Society, 1204–1453. University of Pennsylvania Press. pp. 26–27. ISBN 978-0-8122-1620-2.
  4. Spinei, Victor (2009). The Romanians and the Turkic Nomads North of the Danube Delta from the Tenth to the Mid-Thirteenth Century. Leiden: Brill.
  5. "Cuman (people)". Britannica Online Encyclopedia. Retrieved 14 Juin 2015.
  6. "Mitochondrial-DNA-of-ancient-Cumanians". Goliath.ecnext.com. Archived frae the original on 24 Januar 2010. Retrieved 1 Mairch 2014.
  7. Vásáry, István (2005). Cumans and Tatars Oriental Military in the Pre-Ottoman Balkans 1185–1365. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-5218-3756-9.
  8. Sinor, Sinor, ed. (1990). The Cambridge History of Early Inner Asia, Volume 1. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-5212-4304-9.