- Goverenments maks laws, rules, an regulations, collects taxes an prents siller.
- Govrenments haes seestems o juistice that lists the acts or acteevities that's again the law an descrieves the punishments for brakkin the law.
- Goverenments haes a polis force for tae mak siccar fowk follaes the laws.
- Govrenments haee deeplomats that communicates wi the govrenments o ither kintras by haein meetins. Deeplomats ettles tae redd problems or tuilyies atween twa kintras, that can help kintras evite war, mak commercial greements , an exchynge cultural or social experiences an knawledge.
- Govrenments haes a military force sic as an airmy that fends the kintra gin ither kintras attacks, or it can be uised for tae attack an invade ither kintras.
- The leader o a govrenment an thier redes is cried the admeenistration.
Types o Govrenments[edit | edit source]
- The maist common in the Wastren warld is cried democracy. In democracies, aw the fowk in a kintra can vote durin elections for representatives or poleetical pairty that they prefer. The fowk in democracies can elect representatives that will sit on legislatures sic as the Pairlament or Congress. Poleetical parties is organizations o fowk that haes seemilar thochts aboot hou a kintra or region shoud be rin. Different poleetical pairties haes different thochts aboot hou the govrenment shoud haundle different problems.
- A monarchy is a govrenment ruled by a keeng or a queen that inherits their poseetion frae their faimily, that is aften cried the "ryal faimily." There's twa kin o monarchies: absolute monarchies an constitutional monarchies. In an absolute monarchy, the ruler haes nae restreections on their commaunds or pouers. In a constitutional monarchy a ruler's pouers is restrictit by a document cried a constitution.
- An aristocracy is a govrenment by them that thinks they're the best fowk. A body that rules in an aristocracy is an aristocrat. Aristocracy is different frae nobeelity.
- Unner a dictatorship, the govrenment is rin by ae body that haes absolute pouer ower the fowk in a kintra. Oreeginally, the Roman Republic made dictators for tae lead durin times o war. The Roman dictators (an Greek teerants) wisna necessar ill. The Roman dictators onerly held pouer for a leemitit time. In modren times, a dictator's rule isna restrictit by ony laws, constitutions, or ither social an poleetical institutions. Efter Warld War II, mony govrenments in Laitin Americae, Asie, an Africae wis rin by dictators. Examples o dictators includes Idi Amin, Muammar al-Qaddafi, an Gamal Abdul Nasser.
- An oligarchy is a govrenment ruled by a smaw group o pouerfu indiveeduals. Thir fowk micht divid pouer equal or no equal. An oligarchy is different frae a true democracy acause verra few fowk is gien the chance tae chynge things. An oligarchy daesna hae tae be hereditar or passed doun frae faither tae son. An oligarchy daesna have ae clear ruler, but several pouerfu fowk. Some bygane examples o oligarchy is the umwhile Union o Soviet Socialist Republics an Apartheid Sooth Africae. A feectional example is the deestopian society o Oceania shawn in the beuk Nineteen Eighty-Four. Some creetics o representative democracy thinks o the Unitit States as an oligarchy. This view is skared by anarchists.
History an Theory o Govrenment[edit | edit source]
The semplest idea o govrenment is them that rules ower fowk and laund. This micht be as wee as a community wi some kin o buird that leuks efter the ongauns o thaim that leeves athin it or something a bittie lairger like a clachan or as muckle as a continent (like Australiae).
Thir fowk that rules the laund can allou ithers tae awn it. It is a deed by govrenment that gies this richt in the wey that laws descrieves. Some thinks they hae the richt tae haud laund athout govrenment leave. This view is cried leebertarianism. Ithers thinks they can dae sic like thegither as a group wi ithers gin they leeve in peace, athoot govrenment. This view is cried anarchism.
Mist ilka airt on the Yird is connectit tae the ae an juist the ae govrenment. Airts an pairts athoot govrenment is whaur fowk follaes tradeetions insteid o govrenment rules, smaw disputit airts an the continent o Antarcticaa, acause awmaist nae fow bides there. For ilka place on the Yird there is a govrenment that claims sovereign owerins ower it. The wird "sovereign" is auld an means "owerins throu a Keeng" (sovereign). Govrenments o clachans, ceeties, kintras an ither communities is subordinate tae the govrenment o the state or stewartry whaur they exeests an aw, an syne tae that o the kintra.
It is frae Keengs an feudalism that modren govrenments an nation-states comes. The caipital o a kintra, for instance, is whaur the Keeng kept his assets. Frae this we get the modren idea o caipital in economics. A govrenment is said tae regulate troke as weel as tae rule ower laund.
Goverements controls fowk an decides things aboot whit morality tae accept or punish. In verra mony kintras, there's strict rules aboot sexual intercoorse an drogs that's pairt o the law an offenders is punished for disobeyin them.
There's mony theories o hou tae organize govrenment better. Thir is cried theories o ceevics. Acause goverement is rin by fowk that can be greedy, mony fowk thinks leaders maun be waled by some kin o democracy. Thon wey, gin govrenment deasna act richt, they can be replaced in the neist election. Still an on mony kintras' govrenments isna a democracy but ither forms that juist a puckle fowk haes pouer in.
There's mony theories anent hou tae rin a govrenment mair better, an hinner fowk skaithin ilk ither. Thir theories is pairt o politics. Nae maiter hou a govrenment is waled, it maun dae politics tae haud tae pouer.
There's mony thochts aboot hou tae red a tuilyie athoot needin force or veeolence but by talkin and trustin. This is pairt o ethics. Whan releegion convinces fowk no tae fecht or rely on govrenment, we say an ethical tradeetion is at wirk. Maist law comes frae tradeetions like that. The Ten Commaundments is oe group o laws like that.
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