Ottoman Empire

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Ottoman Empire
دَوْلَتِ عَلِيّهٔ عُثمَانِیّه
Devlet-i Âliyye-i Osmâniyye
1299–1923
Banner Coat o airms
Motto
دولت ابد مدت
Devlet-i Ebed-müddet
(The Eternal State)
Anthem
Ottoman imperial anthem
Expansion o the Ottoman Empire atween 1481 an 1683 (excludin Algerie, Sudan, Hejaz, Asir and Yemen)
Caipital Söğüt (1299–1309)
Yarhisar (1309-1314)
İnegöl (1314-1326)
Bursa (1326–1365)
Adrianople (1365–1453)
Constantinople (1453–1922)
Leid(s) Ottoman Turkish (offeecial), mony ethers
Releegion Offeecial releegion:
Sunni IslamP islam.svg
Minority releegions:
Eastren Orthodox, Rouman Catholic, Judaism, Shiaism
Government Absolute monarchy
(1299-1876)
(1878-1908)
(1918-1922)
Constitutional monarchy
(1876-1878)
(1908-1918)
Sultan
 − 1281–1326 (first) Osman I
 − 1918–1922 (last) Mehmed VI
Grand Vizier
 − 1320–1331 (first) Alaeddin Pasha
 − 1920–1922 (last) Ahmed Tevfik Pasha
Legislatur Imperial Parliament
 − Upperhoose Senate
 − Lowerhoose Chamber o Deputies
History
 - Established 1299
 - Disestablished 29 October 1923
Aurie
 − 1683 5,200,000 km2 (2,007,731 sq mi)
 − 1914[1] 1,800,000 km2 (694,984 sq mi)
Siller Akçe, Para, Kuruş, Lira, Sultanî
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Byzantine Empire
Sultanate o Rûm
Empire o Trebizond
Despotate o the Morea
Despotate o Epirus
Despotate o Dobruja
Karamanids
Kinrick o Bosnie
Bulgarie Empire
Serbie Empire
League o Lezhë
Mamluk Sultanate
Kinrick o Hungary in the Middle Ages
Algerie an Tunis
Turkish Provisional Govrenment
Hellenic Republic
Sultanate o Egyp
Condominium o Bosnie an Herzegovinae
Principality o Serbie
Provisional Govrenment o Albanie
Kinrick o Romanie
Principality o Bulgarie
Breetish Cyprus
French Algerie
French Tunisie
Sheikhdom o Kuwait
OETA
Italian North Africae
Yemen
Timeline o the Ottoman Empire
Index o Ottoman Empire-relatit airticles

The Ottoman Empire, kent offeecially as Sublime Ottoman State (Ottoman Turkis: دَوْلَتِ عَلِيّهٔ عُثمَانِیّه Devlet-i ʿAliyye-yi ʿOsmâniyye, Modren Turkis: Yüce Osmanlı Devleti or Osmanlı İmparatorluğu) wis an empire that lasted frae 1299 tae 1923.

At the height o its pouer, in the sixteent an seiventeent centuries, the empire spanned three continents, controlling much o Sootheastren Europe, Wastren Asie an North Africae The Ottoman Empire contained 29 provinces an numerous vassal states, some o which wur later absorbed intae the empire, while ithers wur grantit various types o autonomy during the course o centuries. The empire also temporarily gained authority owr distant owerseas lands through declarations o allegiance tae the Ottoman Sultan an Caliph, such as the declaration bi the Sultan o Aceh in 1565; or through the temporary acquisitions o islands in the Atlantic Ocean, such as Lanzarote in 1585.

The empire wis at the center o interactions between the Eastern an Wastren warlds for sax centuries. Wi Constantinople as its caipital ceety, an vast control o lands aroond the eastren Mediterranean during the reign o Suleiman the Magnificent (ruled 1520 tae 1566), the Ottoman Empire wis, in mony respects, an Islamic successor tae the Eastren Roman (Byzantine) Empire.

The Ottoman Empire came tae an end, as a regime unner an imperial monarchy, on November 1, 1922 wi the last sultan, Mehmed VI deportit frae Constantinople on November 17. It formally endit, as a de jure state, on Julie 24, 1923, unner the Treaty o Lausanne. Wi the Treaty of Lausanne (signed on Julie 24, 1923) the new Turkis State (still nae a Republic, which wis proclaimed later on October 29, 1923) heidquartered in Ankara wis internaitionally recognized as the successor tae the Sublime Ottoman State. It wis succeedit bi the Republic o Turkey which wis offeecially proclaimed on October 29, 1923.

The empire wis also kent in Inglis as the Osmanic Empire, the Osmanian Empire or the Ottoman State. Mony contemporaries referred tae it as the Turkis Empire or simply Turkey (see the ither names o the Ottoman State).

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Dündar, Orhan; Dündar, Erhan, 1.Dünya Savaşı, Millî Eğitim Bakanlığı Yayınları, 1999, ISBN 975-11-1643-0