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  • افغانستان (Dari)
  • Afġānestān
  • افغانستان (Pashto)
  • Afġānistān
Banner o Afghanistan
Location o Afghanistan
and largest city
34°32′N 69°08′E / 34.533°N 69.133°E / 34.533; 69.133
Offeecial leids[1]
Independence frae Persie
Aprile 1709
October 1747
19 August 1919
• Total
652,864[2] km2 (252,072 sq mi) (40t)
• Water (%)
• 2020 estimate
32,890,171[3] (43rd)
• Density
48.08/km2 (124.5/sq mi) (174t)
GDP (PPP)2018 estimate
• Total
$72.911 billion[4] (96th)
• Per capita
$2,024[4] (169t)
GDP (nominal)2018 estimate
• Tot
$21.657 billion[4] (111st)
• Per capita
$493[4] (177t)
Gini (2008)positive decrease 27.8[5]
law · 1st
HDI (2019)Increase 0.511[6]
law · 169t
CurrencyAfghani (AFN)
Time zoneUTC+4:30 (D†)
Drivin sideright
Cawin code+93
ISO 3166 codeAF
Territorial organization

Afghanistan is a landlocked an muntainous kintra in sooth-central Asie.[7] It is bordert bi Pakistan in the sooth an east,[note] Iran in the wast, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan an Tajikistan in the north, an Cheenae in the far northeast. The territories nou comprisin Afghanistan hae been an ancient focal pynt o the Silk Road an human migration. Archaeologists hae foond evidence o human habitation frae as far back as 50,000 BC.[8] Urban civilisation micht hae begun in the aurie as early as 3000 tae 2000 BC.[9]

The kintra sits at an important geostrategic location whilk connects the Middle East wi Central Asie an the Indian subcontinent,[10] which haes been hame tae various fowks throu the ages.[11] The land haes witnessed mony military conquests syne antiquity, includin bi Alexander the Great, the Mauryans, Muslim Arabs, Genghis Khan, Mughals an ithers.[8][9] It haes an aa served as a soorce frae whilk mony dynasties sic as the Greco-Bactrians, Kushans, Hephthalites, Shahis, Samanids, Saffarids, Ghaznavids, Ghurids, Timurids an ithers hae establisht empires o thair awn.[12]

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. "Article Sixteen of the 2004 Constitution of Afghanistan". 2004. Archived frae the original on 28 October 2013. Retrieved 13 Juin 2012. From among the languages of Pashto, Dari, Uzbeki, Turkmani, Baluchi, Pashai, Nuristani, Pamiri (alsana), Arab and other languages spoken in the country, Pashto and Dari are the official languages of the state.
  2. Central Stateestics Office Afghanistan
  3. Central Stateestics Office Afghanistan, 2020.
  4. a b c d "Afghanistan". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 14 November 2018.
  5. "Gini Index". World Bank. Archived frae the original on 11 Mey 2014. Retrieved 2 Mairch 2011.
  6. Human Development Report 2020 The Next Frontier: Human Development and the Anthropocene (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 15 December 2020. pp. 343–346. ISBN 978-92-1-126442-5. Retrieved 16 December 2020.
  7. "Afghanistan". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 17 Mairch 2010.
  8. a b "The Afghans, Their History and Culture". Center for Applied Linguistics (CAL). 30 Juin 2002. Archived frae the original on 17 Mairch 2010. Retrieved 10 September 2010.
  9. a b Griffin, Luke (14 Januar 2002). "The Pre-Islamic Period". Afghanistan Country Study. Illinois Institute of Technology. Archived frae the original on 3 November 2001. Retrieved 14 October 2010.
  10. "Afghanistan country profile". BBC News. 2 October 2010. Retrieved 7 November 2010.
  11. Baxter, Craig (1997). "Chapter 1. Historical Setting". Library of Congress Country Studies on Afghanistan. Retrieved 24 Juin 2010.
  12. "Kingdoms of South Asia - Afghanistan in Far East Kingdoms: Persia and the East". The History Files. Retrieved 24 Juin 2010.