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Islamic Republic o Afghanistan

  • جمهوری اسلامی افغانستان
    Jomhūrī-ye Eslāmī-ye Afġānestān  (Persie)
  • د افغانستان اسلامي جمهوریت
    Da Afġānistān Islāmī Jomhoriyat  (Script error: The function "name_from_code" does not exist.)
Location o Afghanistan
and largest city
34°32′N 69°08′E / 34.533°N 69.133°E / 34.533; 69.133
Offeecial leids[1]
GovrenmentUnitary presidential republic
• Preses
Hamid Karzai
Abdul Salam Azimi
LegislaturNaitional Assembly
Hoose o Elders
Hoose o the Fowk
Independence frae Persie
Aprile 1709
October 1747
19 August 1919
• Total
652,864[2] km2 (252,072 sq mi) (41st)
• Water (%)
• 2013 estimate
31,108,077[3] (40)
• 1979 census
15.5 million[4]
• Density
43.5/km2 (112.7/sq mi) (150t)
GDP (PPP)2012 estimate
• Total
$33.740 billion[5]
• Per capita
GDP (nominal)2012 estimate
• Tot
$19.906 billion[5]
• Per capita
Gini (2008)29[6]
HDI (2011)0.398[7]
law · 172nt
CurrencyAfghani (AFN)
Time zoneUTC+4:30 (D†)
Drivin sideright
Cawin code+93
ISO 3166 codeAF

The Islamic Republic o Afghanistan, commonly kent as Afghanistan (/æfˈɡænɨstæn/ ( listen)), is a landlocked an muntainous kintra in sooth-central Asie.[8] It is bordert bi Pakistan in the sooth an east,[note] Iran in the wast, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan an Tajikistan in the north, an Cheenae in the far northeast. The territories nou comprisin Afghanistan hae been an ancient focal pynt o the Silk Road an human migration. Archaeologists hae foond evidence o human habitation frae as far back as 50,000 BC.[9] Urban civilisation micht hae begun in the aurie as early as 3000 tae 2000 BC.[10]

The kintra sits at an important geostrategic location whilk connects the Middle East wi Central Asie an the Indian subcontinent,[11] which haes been hame tae various fowks throu the ages.[12] The land haes witnessed mony military conquests syne antiquity, includin bi Alexander the Great, the Mauryans, Muslim Arabs, Genghis Khan, Mughals an ithers.[9][10] It haes an aa served as a soorce frae whilk mony dynasties sic as the Greco-Bactrians, Kushans, Hephthalites, Shahis, Samanids, Saffarids, Ghaznavids, Ghurids, Timurids an ithers hae establisht empires o thair awn.[13]

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. "Article Sixteen of the 2004 Constitution of Afghanistan". 2004. Retrieved 13 Juin 2012. From among the languages of Pashto, Dari, Uzbeki, Turkmani, Baluchi, Pashai, Nuristani, Pamiri (alsana), Arab and other languages spoken in the country, Pashto and Dari are the official languages of the state.
  2. Central Statistics Organization of Afghanistan: Statistical Yearbook 2012-2013: Area and administrative Population
  3. "Afghanistan". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). Retrieved 14 December 2012.
  4. "Chapter 2. The Society and Its Environment" (PDF). Afghanistan Country Study. Illinois Institute of Technology. pp. 105–06. Archived frae the original (PDF) on 3 November 2001. Retrieved 12 October 2010. Archived 2012-10-27 at the Wayback Machine
  5. a b c d "Afghanistan". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 19 Julie 2013.
  6. "Gini Index". World Bank. Retrieved 2 Mairch 2011.
  7. "Human Development Index and its components" (PDF). Retrieved 19 Mey 2012.
  8. "Afghanistan". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 17 Mairch 2010.
  9. a b "The Afghans, Their History and Culture". Center for Applied Linguistics (CAL). 30 Juin 2002. Archived frae the original on 17 Mairch 2010. Retrieved 10 September 2010.
  10. a b Griffin, Luke (14 Januar 2002). "The Pre-Islamic Period". Afghanistan Country Study. Illinois Institute of Technology. Archived frae the original on 3 November 2001. Retrieved 14 October 2010.
  11. "Afghanistan country profile". BBC News. 2 October 2010. Retrieved 7 November 2010.
  12. Baxter, Craig (1997). "Chapter 1. Historical Setting". Library of Congress Country Studies on Afghanistan. Retrieved 24 Juin 2010.
  13. "Kingdoms of South Asia - Afghanistan in Far East Kingdoms: Persia and the East". The History Files. Retrieved 24 Juin 2010.