Timurid Empire

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Timurid Dynasty
تیموریان
1370–1507
Banner o Timurid Empire
Flag[a]
The Timurid Empire in 1405.
The Timurid Empire in 1405.
Caipital Samarkand
(1370–1505)
Herat
(1505–1507)
Common leids Persie, Chagatay
Releegion Islam
Govrenment Feudal monarchy
Emir  
• 1370–1405
Timur (first)
• 1506–1507
Badi' al-Zaman (last)
Historical era Medieval
• Foondit bi Timur Beg
1370
1402
• Fall o Herat
1507
Aurie
1405 est.[1] 4,400,000 km2 (1,700,000 sq mi)
Precedit bi
Succeedit bi
Chagatai Khanate
Kara Koyunlu
Golden Horde
Khanate o Bukhara
Safavid dynasty
Mughal Empire
Khanate o Khiva
a: Flag accordin tae the Catalan Atlas c. 1375.

The Timurids (Persie: تیموریان‎), self-designatit Gurkānī [2][3][4](Persie: گوركانى‎), wur a Persianate[5][6] Central Asian Sunni Muslim dynasty o oreeginally Turko-Mongol[6][7][8][9] strynd whose empire includit the whole o Central Asie, Iran, modren Afghanistan, as well as lairge pairts o Pakistan, Indie, Mesopotamie, Anatolie an the Caucasus. It wis foondit bi the militant conqueror Timur (Tamerlane) in the 14t century.

In the 16t century, Timurid prince Babur, the ruler o Ferghana, invadit Indie an foondit the Mughal Empire, which ruled maist o the Indian subcontinent till its decline efter Aurangzeb in the early 18t century, an wis formally dissolved bi the British Raj efter the Indian rebellion o 1857.

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Turchin, Peter; Adams, Jonathan M.; Hall, Thomas D (December 2006). "East-West Orientation of Historical Empires" (PDF). Journal of world-systems research. 12 (2): 219–229. ISSN 1076–156x Check |issn= value (help). Retrieved 12 August 2010. 
  2. Zahir ud-Din Mohammad (2002-09-10). Thackston, Wheeler M., ed. The Baburnama: Memoirs of Babur, Prince and Emperor. Modern Library Classics. ISBN 0375761373. Note: Gurkānī is the Persianized form o the Mongolian wird "kürügän" ("son-in-law"), the title given tae the dynasty's foonder efter his marriage intae Genghis Khan's family. 
  3. Note: Gurgān, Gurkhān, or Kurkhān; The meaning of Kurkhan is given in Clements Markham's publication of the reports of the contemporary witness Ruy González de Clavijo as "of the lineage of sovereign princes".
  4. Edward Balfour The Encyclopaedia Asiatica, Comprising Indian Subcontinent, Eastern and Southern Asia, Cosmo Publications 1976, S. 460, S. 488, S. 897
  5. Maria Subtelny, "Timurids in Transition", BRILL; illustrated edition (2007-09-30). pg 40: "Nevertheless, in the complex process of transition, members of the Timurid dynasty and their Turko-Mongolian supporters became acculturate by the surrounding Persinate millieu adopting Persian cultural models and tastes and acting as patrons of Persian culture, painting, architecture and music." pg 41: "The last members of the dynasty, notably Sultan-Abu Sa'id and Sultan-Husain, in fact came to be regarded as ideal Perso-Islamic rulers who develoted as much attention to agricultural development as they did to fostering Persianate court culture."
  6. 6.0 6.1 B.F. Manz, "Tīmūr Lang", in Encyclopaedia of Islam, Online Edition, 2006
  7. Encyclopædia Britannica, "Timurid Dynasty", Online Academic Edition, 2007. (Quotation:...Turkic dynasty descended from the conqueror Timur (Tamerlane), renowned for its brilliant revival of artistic and intellectual life in Iran and Central Asia....Trading and artistic communities were brought into the capital city of Herat, where a library was founded, and the capital became the centre of a renewed and artistically brilliant Persian culture...)
  8. "Timurids". The Columbia Encyclopedia (Sixth ed.). New York City: Columbia University. Retrieved 2006-11-08. 
  9. Encyclopædia Britannica article: Consolidation & expansion of the Indo-Timurids, Online Edition, 2007.