History o Azerbaijan

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The history o Azerbaijan, the lairgest ceety o Azerbaijan.

History o the name Azerbaijan[eedit | eedit soorce]

Azerbaijan is ane o the sax independent Turkic States as o 1991.

The name o Azerbaijan derives frae Atropates[1][2], a Persian[3][4][5][6][7] satrap unner the Achaemenid Empire, that wis later reinstatit as the satrap o Media unner Alexander the Great.[8][9] The oreeginal etymology o this name is thocht tae hae its roots in the auncient Iranian releegion o Zoroastrianism. In the Avesta, Frawardin Yasht ("Hymn tae the Guardian Angels"), thare is a mention o âterepâtahe ashaonô fravashîm ýazamaide, which literally translates frae Avestan as "we worship the Fravashi o the holy Atare-pata".[10]

Atropates ruled ower the region o Atropatene (present-day Iranian Azerbaijan). The name "Atropates" itself is the Greek transliteration o an Auld-Iranian, probably Median, compoondit name wi the meanin "Protectit bi the (Holy) Fire". The Greek name is mentioned bi Diodorus Siculus an Strabo, an it is continued as ādurbādagān in the Middle Persian geographical text Shahrestānihā i Erānshahr.[11] The wird is translatable as baith "the treasury" an "the treasurer" o fire in Modren Persian.

Caucasian Albanie[eedit | eedit soorce]

Main airticle: Caucasian Albanie
Borders o Caucasian Albanie (reid dashed line)

Albania[12] uisually referred tae as Caucasian Albania for disambiguation wi the modren state o Albanie; the native name for the kintra is unkent[13][14]) is a name for the historical region o the eastren Caucasus, that existit on the territory o present-day republic o Azerbaijan (whaur baith o its caipitals wur locatit) an pairtially soothren Dagestan.

Azerbaijan Democratic Republic[eedit | eedit soorce]

Azerbaijan Democratic Republic wis the first successfu attempt tae establish a democratic an secular republic in the Muslim warld.[15][16]

Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic[eedit | eedit soorce]

Coat o airms as the Azerbaijan SSR

Established on 28 Aprile 1920 as the Azerbaijan SSR, frae 12 Mairch 1922 tae 5 Dizember 1936, it wis pairt o the Transcaucasian SFSR thegither wi the Armenie SSR an the Georgie SSR. In Dizember 1922, the Transcaucasie SFSR became pairt o the newly establisht Soviet Union. The Constitution o Azerbaijan SSR wis appruivit bi the 9t Extraordinar Aw-Azerbaijani Congress o Soviets on 14 Mairch 1937. On 19 November 1990, Azerbaijan SSR wis renamit the "Republic o Azerbaijan," remainin in the USSR for anither year afore its unthirldom in 1991.

Azerbaijan Republic[eedit | eedit soorce]

Main airticle: Azerbaijan

Diplomatic relations[eedit | eedit soorce]

Azerbaijan haes diplomatic relations wi 158 kinrtas sae far an haulds membership in 38 internaitional organisations.[17]

Azerbaijan is ane o the foondin members o GUAM an the Organisation for the Prohibition o Chemical Weapons, an jynt the Commonwealth o Independent States in September 1993.[18]

On 9 Mey 2006 Azerbaijan wis electit tae membership in the newly established Human Richts Council bi the Unitit Naitions General Assembly. The term o office began on 19 Juin 2006.[19] A Special Envoy o the European Commission is present in the kintra, which is an' a' a member o the Unitit Naitions, the OSCE, the Council o Europe, an the NATO Partnership for Peace (PfP) program. The kintra an aa haulds observer status in the Non-Aligned Movement an Warld Tred Organisation an is a correspondent at the Internaitional Telecommunication Union.[17]

Gallery[eedit | eedit soorce]

Airticle[eedit | eedit soorce]

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Minorsky, V.; Minorsky, V. "Ādharbaydjān (Azarbāydjān )." Encyclopaedia of Islam. Edited by: P.Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs. Brill, 2007. Brill Online. EncIslam.brill.nl.
  2. Encyclopedia Iranica, "Azerbaijan: Pre-Islamic History", K. Shippmann.
  3. Miniature Empires: A Historical Dictionary of the Newly Independent States by James Minahan, published in 2000, page 20
  4. Lendering, Jona. "Atropates (Biography)". Livius.org. Retrieved 2007-12-10. 
  5. Chamoux, Francois. Hellenistic Civilization. Blackwell Publishing, published 2003, page 26
  6. Bosworth, A.B., and Baynham, E.J. Alexander the Great in Fact and Fiction. Oxford, published 2002, page 92
  7. Encyclopedia Iranica, "Azerbaijan: Pre-Islamic History", K. Shippmann
  8. Chaumont, M. L. (1989). "Atropates". Encyclopaedia Iranica. 3.1. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. 
  9. Historical Dictionary of Azerbaijan by Tadeusz Swietochowski and Brian C. Collins. The Scarecrow Press, Inc., Lanham, Maryland (1999), ISBN 0-8108-3550-9. Retrieved 7 June 2006.
  10. "Frawardin Yasht ("Hymn to the Guardian Angels") – translated by James Darmesteter (From Sacred Books of the East, American Edition, 1898)". 
  11. ed. Touraj Daryaee, Mazda Publishers, Costa Mesa 2002.
  12. James Stuart Olson. An Ethnohistorical Dictionary of the Russian and Soviet Empires. ISBN 0-313-27497-5
  13. Robert H. Hewsen. "Ethno-History and the Armenian Influence upon the Caucasian Albanians", in: Samuelian, Thomas J. (Ed.), Classical Armenian Culture. Influences and Creativity. Chicago: 1982, pp. 27-40.
  14. Bosworth, Clifford E. Arran. Encyclopædia Iranica.
  15. Tadeusz Swietochowski. Russia and Azerbaijan: A Borderland in Transition. Columbia University Press, 1995. ISBN 0-231-07068-3, 9780231070683, p.69.
  16. Reinhard Schulze. A Modern History of the Islamic World. I.B.Tauris, 2000. ISBN 1-86064-822-3, 9781860648229.[page needit]
  17. 17.0 17.1 "AUK Foreign Office – Country Profiles: Azerbaijan". FCO.gov.uk. Archived frae the oreeginal on 2003-07-31. Retrieved 2007-05-26. 
  18. "US State Department 1993 Country Reports on Economic Practice and Trade Reports: Azerbaijan". 
  19. "Elections & Appointments – Human Rights Council". Un.org. Retrieved 2009-01-03. 

Ither wabsteids[eedit | eedit soorce]