Treaty o Versailles
The Treaty o Versailles (French: Traité de Versailles) wis ane o the peace treaties at the end o Warld War I. It endit the state o war atween Germany an the Allied Pouers. It wis signed on 28 Juin 1919 in Versailles, exactly five years efter the assassination o Archduke Franz Ferdinand, that haed directly led tae the war. The ither Central Pouers on the German side signed separate treaties. Awtho the airmistice, signed on 11 November 1918, endit the actual feghtin, it teuk sax month o Allied negotiations at the Paris Peace Conference tae conclude the peace treaty. The treaty wis registered bi the Secretariat o the League o Naitions on 21 October 1919.
O the mony proveesions in the treaty, ane o the maist important an controversial required "Germany [tae] accept the responsibility o Germany an her allies for causin aw the loss an damage" in the war (the ither members o the Central Powers signed treaties conteenin seemilar airticles). This airticle, Airticle 231, later becam kent as the War Guilt clause. The treaty required Germany tae disairm, mak ample territorial concessions, an pey reparations tae certaint kintras that haed formed the Entente pouers. In 1921 the tot cost o thir reparations wis assessed at 132 billion marks (then $31.4 billion or £6.6 billion, aboot equivalent tae US$442 billion or UK£284 billion in 2023). At the time economists, notably John Maynard Keynes (a Breetish delegate tae the Paris Peace Conference), predictit that the treaty wis ower hersh—a "Carthaginian peace"—an said the reparations feegur wis excessive an coonter-productive, views that, syne then, hae been the subject o ongaein debate bi historians an economists. On the ither haund, prominent feegurs on the Allied side, sic as French Marshal Ferdinand Foch, creeticised the treaty for treatin Germany ower leniently.
The result o thir competin an whiles conflictin goals amang the victors wis a compromise that left na ane satisfied, an, in pairteecular, Germany wis naither pacified nor conciliatit, nor wis it permanently waikened. The problems that arose frae the treaty wad lead tae the Locarno Treaties, that impruived relations atween Germany an the ither European pouers, an the re-negotiation o the reparation seestem resultin in the Dawes Plan, the Young Plan, an the indefinite postponement o reparations at the Lausanne Conference o 1932.
Altho it is eften referred tae as the "Versailles Conference", anerly the actual signin o the treaty teuk place at the historic pailace. Maist o the negotiations war in Paris, wi the "Big Fower" meetings takin place generally at the Quai d'Orsay.
References[eedit | eedit soorce]
- ↑ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac Treaty o Versailles Preamble
- ↑ Slavicek, p. 114
- ↑ Slavicek, p. 107
- ↑ Boyer, p. 153
- ↑ a b Treaty o Versailles Seegnaturs an Protocol
- ↑ Treaty o Saint-Germain-en-Laye (1919) wi Austria; Treaty o Neuilly-sur-Seine wi Bulgarie; Treaty o Trianon wi Hungary; Treaty o Sèvres wi the Ottoman Empire; Davis, Robert T., ed. (2010). U.S. Foreign Policy and National Security: Chronology and Index for the 20th Century. 1. Santa Barbara, California: Praeger Security International. p. 49. ISBN 978-0-313-38385-4.
- Treaty o Versailles
- 1919 in Fraunce
- Airms control treaties
- Paris Peace Conference, 1919
- Peace treaties o Fraunce
- Peace treaties o Germany
- Peace treaties o Italy
- Peace treaties o Japan
- Peace treaties o the Unitit Kinrick
- Peace treaties o the Unitit States
- Treaties concludit in 1919
- Treaties entered intae force in 1920
- Treaties o the Empire o Japan
- Treaties o the French Third Republic
- Treaties o the German Empire
- Treaties o the Kinrick o Italy (1861–1946)
- Warld War I treaties
- Fraunce–Germany relations
- Germany–Italy relations
- Germany–Japan relations
- Germany–Unitit Kinrick relations
- Germany–Unitit States relations
- Treaties o the Unitit Kinrick (1801–1922)