Yiddish leid

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Yiddish
ייִדיש‎, יידיש‎ or אידישyidish/idish
Pronunciation [ˈjɪdɪʃ] or [ˈɪd ɪʃ]
Native tae Central, Eastren an Wsstren Europe
Region Europe, Israel, North Americae, ither regions wi Jewish populations[1]
Ethnicity Ashkenazi Jews
Native speakers
(1.5 million citit 1986–1991 + hauf undatit)[1]
Ebreu alphabet (Yiddish orthografie)
Offeecial status
Recognised minority
leid in
Regulatit bi Na formal bouks
YIVO de facto
Leid codes
ISO 639-1 yi
ISO 639-2 yid
ISO 639-3 yidinclusive code
Individual codes:
ydd – Eastren Yiddish
yih – Wastren Yiddish
Glottolog yidd1255[2]
Linguasphere 52-ACB-g = 52-ACB-ga (Wast) + 52-ACB-gb (East); totallin 11 varieties

Yiddish (ייִדיש yidish or אידיש idish, literally "Jewish") is an Ashkenazi Jewish lied o hie German oreegin, spaken throughoot the warld. It developed as a fusion o German dialects wi Ebreu, Aramaic, Slavic leids an traces o Romance leids.[3][4] It is written in the Ebreu alphabet.

The leid originatit in the Ashkenazi culture that developed frae aboot the 10t century in the Rhineland an then spread tae Central an Eastern Europe an eventually tae ither continents. In the earliest survivin references tae it, the leid is cawed לשון־אַשכּנז (loshn-ashknez = "leid o Ashkenaz") an טײַטש (taytsh, a variant o tiutsch, the contemporary name for the leid itherwise spaken in the region o oreegin, nou cawed Middle Hie German; compare the modern New High German Deutsch). In common usage, the language is an aw cried מאַמע־לשון (mame-loshn, literally "mother tongue"), distinguishing it frae Biblical Hebrew which is termed לשון־קודש (loshn-koydesh, "holy tongue") an Aramaic. The term "Yiddish" did no become the maist frequently uised designation in the literature o the leid till the 18t century.

For a significant portion o its history, Yiddish wis the primary spaken leid o the Ashkenazi Jews an ance spanned a broad dialect continuum frae Wastren Yiddish tae three major groups athin Eastren Yiddish, namely Litvish, Poylish an Ukrainish. Eastren an Wastren Yiddish are maist markedly distinguisht bi the extensive inclusion o wirds o Slavic oreegin in the Eastren dialects. While Wastren Yiddish haes few remainin speakers, Eastren dialects remain in wide uise.

Yiddish is written an spaken in Orthodox Jewish communities aroond the warld. It is a hame language in maist Hasidic communities, where it is the first leid learned in childhuid, uised in schools an in mony social settings.

Yiddish is an' a' uised in the adjectival sense tae designate attributes o Ashkenazic cultur (for example, Yiddish cookin an Yiddish muisic).[5]

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. 1.0 1.1 Yiddish at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
    Eastren Yiddish at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
    Wastren Yiddish at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Yiddish". Glottolog. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 
  3. Introduction to Old Yiddish literature, p. 72, Baumgarten and Frakes, Oxford University Press, 2005
  4. "Development of Yiddish over the ages", www.jewishgen.org
  5. Oscar Levant described Cole Porter's 'My Heart Belongs to Daddy" as "one of the most Yiddish tunes ever written" despite the fact that "Cole Porter's genetic background was completely alien to any Jewishness." Oscar Levant,The Unimportance of Being Oscar, Pocket Books 1969 (reprint of G.P. Putnam 1968), p. 32. ISBN 0-671-77104-3.

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