Neville Chamberlain

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Neville Chamberlain

Neville Chamberlain in 1921
Prime Meenister o the Unitit Kinrick o Great Breetain an Northren Ireland
In office
28 Mey 1937 – 10 Mey 1940
MonarchGeorge VI
Precedit biStanley Baldwin
Succeedit biWinston Churchill
Leader o the Conservative Pairty
In office
27 Mey 1937 – 9 October 1940
Precedit biStanley Baldwin
Succeedit biWinston Churchill
Laird Preses o the Cooncil
In office
10 Mey 1940 – 3 October 1940
Prime MeenisterWinston Churchill
Precedit biThe Earl Stanhope
Succeedit biSir John Anderson
Chancellor o the Exchequer
In office
5 November 1931 – 28 Mey 1937
Prime Meenister
Precedit biPhilip Snowden
Succeedit biSir John Simon
In office
27 August 1923 – 22 Januar 1924
Prime MeenisterStanley Baldwin
Precedit biStanley Baldwin
Succeedit biPhilip Snowden
Meenister o Heal
In office
25 August 1931 – 5 November 1931
Prime MeenisterRamsay MacDonald
Precedit biArthur Greenwood
Succeedit biEdward Hilton Young
In office
6 November 1924 – 4 Juin 1929
Prime MeenisterStanley Baldwin
Precedit biJohn Wheatley
Succeedit biArthur Greenwood
In office
7 Mairch 1923 – 27 August 1923
Prime Meenister
Precedit biSir Arthur Griffith-Boscawen
Succeedit biWilliam Joynson-Hicks
Personal details
BornArthur Neville Chamberlain
18 Mairch 1869(1869-03-18)
Birmingham, Warwickshire, Ingland
Dee'd9 November 1940(1940-11-09) (aged 71)
Heckfield, Hampshire, Ingland
Restin placeWastmeenster Abbey
NaitionalityBreetish
Poleetical pairtyConservative
Spoose(s)Anne de Vere Cole (m. 1911)
Bairns
  • Dorothy Chamberlain (Lloyd)
  • Francis Chamberlain
Alma materMason College (nou the Varsity o Birmingham)
ProfessionBusinessman
ReligionUnitarian[1]
SignaturA neatly written "Neville Chamberlain"

Arthur Neville Chamberlain FRS[2] (18 Mairch 1869 – 9 November 1940) wis a Breetish Conservative politeecian who served as Prime Meenister o the Unitit Kinrick frae Mey 1937 to Mey 1940. He wis Prime Meenister at the stairt o Warld War II. Chamberlain is best kent for his furrin policy o appeasement an in pairteecular for his signin o the Munich Greement in 1938, concedin the German-speakin Sudetenland region o Czechoslovakie tae Germany. Houiver, whan Adolf Hitler later invadit Poland, the UK declared war on Germany on 3 September 1939 an Chamberlain led Breetain throu the first aicht months o Warld War II.

Efter wirkin in business an local govrenment, an efter a short spell as Director o Naitional Service in 1916 an 1917, Chamberlain follaed his faither, Joseph Chamberlain, an aulder hauf-brither, Austen Chamberlain, in acomin a Member o Pairlament in the 1918 general election at age 49. He declined a junior meenisterial poseetion, remeenin a backbencher till 1922. He wis rapidly promotit in 1923 tae Meenister o Heal an then Chancellor o the Exchequer. Efter a short-lived Labour-led govrenment, he returned as Meenister o Heal, introducin a range o reform meisurs frae 1924 tae 1929. He wis appyntit Chancellor o the Exchequer in the Naitional Govrenment in 1931.

Whan Stanley Baldwin retired in Mey 1937, Chamberlain teuk his place as Prime Meenister. His premiership wis dominatit bi the quaisten o policy taewart an increasinly aggressive Germany an his actions at Munich war widely popular amang Britons at the time. Whan Hitler conteena'd his aggression, Chamberlain pledged Breetain tae defend Poland's unthirldom if the latter war attacked, an alliance that brocht Breetain intae war whan Germany attacked Poland in 1939. Chamberlain resigned the premiership on 10 Mey 1940 efter the Allies war forced tae retreat frae Norawa, as he believed that a govrenment supportit bi aw pairties wis essential an the Labour an Leeberal pairties wad nae jyne a govrenment heidit bi him. He wis succeedit bi Winston Churchill but remeened verra weel-regairdit in Pairlament, especially amang Conservatives. Afore ill-heal forced him tae resign, he wis an important member o Churchill's War Cabinet as Laird Preses o the Cooncil, heidin the Cabinet in the new premier's absence. Chamberlain dee'd o cancer sax months efter leavin the premiership.

Chamberlain's reputation remeens controversial amang historians, wi the ineetial heich regaird for him bein entirely erodit bi beuks such as Guilty Men, published in Julie 1940, that blamed Chamberlain an his associates for the Munich accord an for allegedly failin tae prepare the kintra for war. Maist historians in the generation follaein Chamberlain's daith held seemilar views, led bi Churchill in The Gathering Storm. Some recent historians hae taken a mair favourable perspective o Chamberlain an his policies, citing government papers released under the Thirty Year Rule an airgeein that gaein tae war wi Germany in 1938 would have been disastrous as the UK was nae reidy. Nivertheless, Chamberlain is still unfavourably ranked amangst Breetish Prime Meenisters.[3]

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Unitarian Association, Midland. ""Neville (and his half-brother (Sir) Austen) were members of the Birmingham Unitarian New Meeting Church"". Midland Unitarian Association. Birmingham New Meeting Church. Retrieved June 6, 2014. 
  2. Hadley 1941.
  3. Paul Strangio; et al. (2013). Understanding Prime-Ministerial Performance: Comparative Perspectives. Oxford UP. pp. 224, 226. ISBN 978-0-19-966642-3.