Chiang Kai-shek

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Chiang Kai-shek
蒋中正
蔣介石
Chiang Kai-shek(蔣中正).jpg
蔣中正
Chairman o the Naitional Govrenment o Cheenae
In office
October 10, 1928 – December 15, 1931
PremierTan Yankai
Soong Tse-ven
Precedit biGu Weijun (Actin)
Succeedit biLin Sen
In office
August 1, 1943 – Mey 20, 1948
Actin til October 10, 1943
PremierSoong Tse-ven
Precedit biLin Sen
Succeedit biHimself (as Preses o the Republic o Cheenae)
Chairman o the Naitional Militar Council
In office
December 15, 1931 – Mey 31, 1946
Precedit biPoseetion established
Succeedit biPoseetion abolished
Preses o the Republic o Cheenae
In office
Mey 20, 1948 – Januar 21, 1949
PremierChang Chun
Wong Wen-hao
Sun Fo
Vice PresesLi Zongren
Precedit biHimself (as Chairman o the Naitional Govrenment o Cheenae)
Succeedit biLi Zongren (Actin)
In office
Mairch 1, 1950 – Aprile 5, 1975
PremierYen Hsi-shan
Chen Cheng
Yu Hung-Chun
Chen Cheng
Yen Chia-kan
Chiang Ching-kuo
Vice PresesLi Zongren
Chen Cheng
Yen Chia-kan
Precedit biLi Zongren (Actin)
Succeedit biYen Chia-kan
Premier o the Republic o Cheenae
In office
December 4, 1930 – December 15, 1931
Precedit biSoong Tse-ven
Succeedit biChen Mingshu
In office
December 9, 1935 – Januar 1, 1938
PresesLin Sen
Precedit biWang Jingwei
Succeedit biHsiang-hsi Kung
In office
November 20, 1939 – Mey 31, 1945
PresesLin Sen
Precedit biHsiang-hsi Kung
Succeedit biSoong Tse-ven
In office
Mairch 1, 1947 – Aprile 18, 1947
Precedit biSoong Tse-ven
Succeedit biChang Chun
1st, 3rd Director-General o the Kuomintang
In office
Mairch 29, 1938 – Aprile 5, 1975
Precedit biHu Hanmin
Succeedit biChiang Ching-kuo (as Chairman o the Kuomintang)
Personal details
Born31 October 1887(1887-10-31)
Fenghua, Zhejiang
Dee'd5 Apryle 1975(1975-04-05) (aged 87)
Taipei, Taiwan
NaitionalityChinese
Poleetical pairtyKuomintang
Spoose(s)Mao Fumei
Yao Yecheng (concubine)
Chen Jieru
Soong May-ling
BairnsChiang Ching-kuo
Chiang Wei-kuo (adopted)
Alma materBaoding Militar Academy, Imperial Japanese Airmy Academy Preparatory Schuil
ThriftSoldier (General officer)
ReligionChristian [1]
AwairdsOrder o Naitional Glory, Order o Blue Sky an White Sun, 1st class Order o the Sacred Tripod, Legion o Merit
Signatur
Militar service
Nickname(s)"Generalissimo"or "Red General"[2]
AllegianceRepublic o Cheenae Republic o Cheenae
Years o service1923–1975
RankGeneralissimo
Battles/warsXinhai Revolution, Northren Expedition, Sino-Tibetan War, Kumul Rebellion, Soviet Invasion o Xinjiang, Cheenese Ceevil War, Seicont Sino-Japanese War, Kuomintang Islamic Insurgency in Cheenae (1950–1958)
Chiang Kai-shek
Tradeetional Cheenese /
Simplifee'd Cheenese /

Chiang Kai-shek (October 31, 1887 – Aprile 5, 1975) wis a 20t-century Cheenese poleetical an militar leader. He is kent as Jiang Jieshi (蔣介石) or Jiang Zhongzheng (蔣中正) in Mandarin Cheenese. Chiang wis an influential member o the Kuomintang (KMT), or Naitionalist Pairty, an wis a close ally o Sun Yat-sen. He acame the Commandant o the Kuomintang's Whampoa Militar Academy, an teuk Sun's place as leader o the KMT whan Sun died in 1925. In 1926, Chiang led the Northren Expedition tae unify the kintra, acomin Cheenae's nominal leader.[3] He served as Chairman o the Naitional Militar Cooncil o the Naitionalist govrenment o the Republic o Cheenae (ROC) frae 1928 tae 1948. Chiang led Cheenae in the Seicont Sino-Japanese War, durin which the Naitionalist govrenment's pouer severely weakened, but his prominence grew. Unlik Sun Yat-sen, Chiang Kai-shek wis socially conservative, promotin tradeetional Cheenese cultur in the New Life Movement an rejectin wastren democracy an the naitionalist democratic socialism that Sun Yat-sen an some ither members o the KMT embraced in favor o a naitionalist authoritarian govrenment.

Chiang's predecessor, Sun Yat-sen, wis well-liked an respectit bi the Communists, but efter Sun's daith Chiang wis nae able tae maintain guid relations wi the Communist Pairty o Cheenae (CPC). A major split atween the Naitionalists an Communists occurred in 1927; an, unner Chiang's leadership, the Nationalists foucht a naition-wide ceevil war against the Communists. Efter Japan invadit Cheenae in 1937, Chiang agreed tae a temporary truce wi the CPC. Despite some early cooperative militar successes against Japan, bi the time that the Japanese surrendered in 1945 neither the CPC nor the KMT trustit each ither or wur actively cooperatin. Efter American-sponsored attempts tae negotiate a coalition govrenment failed in 1946, the Cheenese Civil War resumed. The CPC defeatit the Nationalists in 1949, forcin Chiang's govrenment tae retreat tae Taiwan, whaur Chiang imposed martial law an persecutit fowk creetical o his rule in a period kent as the "White Terror". Efter evacuatin tae Taiwan, Chiang's govrenment continued tae declare its intention tae retake mainland Cheenae. Chiang ruled the island securely as Preses o the Republic o Cheenae an General o the Kuomintang til his daith in 1975. He ruled mainland Cheenae for 22 years, an Taiwan for 30 years.

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Jay Taylor. The Generalissimo: Chiang Kai-Shek and the Struggle for Modern China. (Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2009)p. 2.
  2. Hannah Pakula (2009). The last empress: Madame Chiang Kai-Shek and the birth of modern China. Simon and Schuster. p. 346. ISBN 1-4391-4893-7. Retrieved June 28, 2010. 
  3. Zarrow, Peter Gue (2005). China in War and Revolution, 1895–1949. pp. 230–231. 

Freemit airtins[eedit | eedit soorce]

Poleetical offices
Precedit bi
Tan Yankai
Chairman o the Naitional Govrenment o Cheenae
1928–1931
Succeedit bi
Lin Sen
Precedit bi
T.V. Soong
Premier o the Republic o Cheenae
1930–1931
Succeedit bi
Chen Mingshu
Precedit bi
none
Chairman o the Naitional Militar Cooncil
1932–1946
Succeedit bi
none
Precedit bi
Wang Jingwei
Premier o the Republic o Cheenae
1935–1938
Succeedit bi
H. H. Kung
Precedit bi
Hsiang-hsi Kung
Premier o the Republic o Cheenae
1939–1945
Succeedit bi
Song Ziwen
Precedit bi
Lin Sen
Chairman o the Naitional Govrenment o Cheenae
1943–1948
Succeedit bi
Himself
As Preses o the Republic o Cheenae
Precedit bi
Song Ziwen
Premier o the Republic o Cheenae
1947
Succeedit bi
Zhang Qun
Precedit bi
Himself
As Chairman o the Naitional Govrenment o Cheenae
Preses o the Republic o Cheenae
1948–1975
Li Zongren (Actin)
Januar 21, 1949 tae Mairch 1, 1950
Succeedit bi
Yen Chia-kan
Pairty poleetical offices
Precedit bi
Wang Jingwei
Chairman o the Central Executive Committee o the Kuomintang
1933–1938
Succeedit bi
Office abolished
Precedit bi
Hu Hanmin
Director-General o the Kuomintang
1938–1975
Succeedit bi
Chiang Ching-kuo
As Chairman o the Kuomintang
Militar offices
Precedit bi
Office creatit
Commander-in-chief o the Naitional Revolutionary Airmy
1925–1947
Succeedit bi
Office abolished
Academic offices
Precedit bi
Office creatit
Commandant o the Whampoa Militar Academy
1924–1947
Succeedit bi
Guan Linzheng