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Sverdlovsk Oblast

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Sverdlovsk Oblast
Свердловская область
Banner o Sverdlovsk Oblast
Coat of airms o Sverdlovsk Oblast
Coat airms
Coordinates: 58°42′N 61°20′E / 58.700°N 61.333°E / 58.700; 61.333Coordinates: 58°42′N 61°20′E / 58.700°N 61.333°E / 58.700; 61.333
Federal destrictUrals[1]
Economic regionUrals[2]
Established17 Januar 1934
Admeenistrative centreYekaterinburg
 • BodiLegislative Assembly
 • GovrenorAlexander Misharin[3]
 • Total194800 km2 (75,200 sq mi)
Area rank17t
 (2010 Census)[5]
 • Total4,297,747
 • Estimate 
4,325,256 (+0.6%)
 • Rank5t
 • Density22/km2 (57/sq mi)
 • Urban
 • Rural
Time zoneUTC+5 ([7])
ISO 3166 codeRU-SVE
License plates66, 96
OKTMO ID65000000
Offeecial leidsRoushie[8]

Sverdlovsk Oblast (Roushie: Свердло́вская о́бласть, Sverdlovskaya oblast) is a federal subject (an oblast) o Roushie locatit in the Ural Federal Destrict. Its admeenistrative center is the ceety o Yekaterinburg umwhile kent as Sverdlovsk. Population: 4,297,747 (2010 Census).[5]

Geografie[eedit | eedit soorce]

Maist o the oblast lees on the eastren slopes o the Middle an North Urals an the Wastren Siberie Plain. Anerlie in the soothwast daes the oblast stretch ontae the wastren slopes o the Ural Muntains.

The heichest muntains aw rise in the North Urals (Konzhakovsky Kamen at 1,569 m an Denezhkin Kamen at 1,492 m). The Middle Urals is maistly hilly kintra wi nae discernible peaks; the mean elevation is closer tae 300–500 m abuin the sea level. Principal rivers include the Tavda, the Tura, the Chusovaya, an the Ufa, the latter twa bein tributaries o the Kama.

Sverdlovsk Oblast borders wi, clockwise frae the wast, Perm Krai, the Komi Republic, Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug, Tyumen Oblast, Kurgan, an Chelyabinsk Oblasts, an the Republic o Bashkortostan.

The oblast is traversed bi the northeasterly line o equal latitude an langitude.

Natural resources[eedit | eedit soorce]

The oblast is rich in naitural resoorces, parteecularly in metals (airn, capper, gowd, platinum), minerals (asbestos, gemstanes, talcum), marble an coal. It is maistly here that the bulk o Roushie industry wis concentratit in the 18t an 19t centuries.

Climate[eedit | eedit soorce]

The aurie enjoys continental climate patterns, wi lang cauld winters (average temperaturs reachin −15 °C (5 °F) tae −25 °C (−13 °F) on the Wastren Siberie Plain) an short wairm simmers. Anerlie in the sootheast o the oblast dae temperaturs reach +13 °C (55 °F) in Julie.

Admeenistrative diveesions[eedit | eedit soorce]

Demographics[eedit | eedit soorce]

Population: 4,297,747 (2010 Census);[5] 4,486,214 (2002 Census);[9] 4,716,768 (1989 Census).[10]

Ethnic groups

Thare wur twinty-ane recognizit ethnic groups o mair nor twa thoosand persons each. Residents identifeed thairsels as belangin tae a tot o 148 different ethnic groups, includin:[5]

  • 3,684,843 Roushies:(90.6%);
  • 143,803 Tatars:(3.5%);
  • 35,563 Ukrainians:(0.9%);
  • 31,183 Bashkirs:(0.8%);
  • 23,801 Mari:(0.6%);
  • 14,914 Germans:(0.4%);
  • 14,215 Azeris:(0.3%);
  • 13,789 Udmurts:(0.3%);
  • 11,670 Belaroushies:(0.3%);
  • 11,510 Chuvash:(0.26%);
  • 11,501 Armeniies:(0.3%);
  • 11,138 Tajiks:(0.3%);
  • 9,702 Mordovies:(0.22%);
  • 9,358 Uzbeks:(0.2%);
  • 232,978 fowk wur registered frae admeenistrative databases, an coud nae declare an ethnicity. It is estimatit that the proportion o ethnicities in this group is the same as that o the declared group.[11]
  • Births (2008): 54,500 [12]
  • Daiths (2008): 65,000

History[eedit | eedit soorce]

Roushie conquest o the Khanate o Kazan in the 1550s pavit the wey further east which wis nou free frae Tatar depredations (see Yermak Timofeyevich). The first survivin Roushie settlements in the aurie date back tae the late 16t — early 17t centuries (Verkhoturye, 1598; Turinsk, 1600; Irbit, 1633; Alapayevsk, 1639). In the 18t an 19t centuries the aurie became the industrial hertland o Roushie due tae its rich deposits o iron an coal (see abuin). In the 1930s mony industrial enterprises wur established an biggit wi the help o forcit labour.[13] Local industry receivit anither impetus durin the Warld War II whan important producin facilities wur relocatit here frae the European pairt o Roushie tae safeguard them frae the advancin Germans (for ensaumple, IMZ-Ural). In the postwar period hintle o the region wis aff-leemits tae foreigners an it wis ower Sverdlovsk that the American pilot Gary Powers wis shot doun on 1 Mey 1960, while on a reconnaissance mission. Anither historic event that teuk place in Yekaterinburg wis the execution o Nicholas II o Roushie an the Imperial family in Julie 1918.

In 1993, Govrenor Eduard Rossel respondit tae perceivit economic inequality bi attemptin tae creaut a "Urals Republic." Sverdlovsk led the "Urals Five" (Kurgan Oblast, Orenburg Oblast, Perm Krai, Chelyabinsk Oblast an Sverdlovsk) in a caw for greater regional pouer. Thay argued that the oblasts deserved as hintle pouer as the ethnic hameland republics. The Urals Republic Constitution went intae effect on 27 October 1993. Roushie Preses Boris Yeltsin dissolvit the Urals Republic an Sverdlovsk Parliament 10 days later (on November 9).

Politics[eedit | eedit soorce]

Syne 2009, the oblast's Govrenor is Alexander Misharin.[14]

The oblast's Chairter, adoptit on 17 December 1994, wi subsequent amendments, establishes the oblast govrenment. The Govrenor is the chief executive, who appoints the Govrenment, consistin o meenistries an depairtments. The Chairman/Preses o the Govrenment, commonly referred tae as the Prime Meenister, is appointit wi the consent o the lawer hoose o the legislatur, a process seemilar tae the appointment o the federal Prime Meenister; but the Govrenor canna nominate the same candidate mair nor twice, yet he/she can dismiss the hoose efter three failed attempts tae appynt the Premier. The Legislative Assembly consists o the Oblast Duma, the lawer hoose, an the Hoose o Representatives, the upper hoose. Members o the legislatur serve fower-year terms; housomeivver, hauf o the Duma is re-electit ivery twa years. The Duma (28 members) is electit bi pairty leets; the 21 members o the Hoose o Representatives are electit in single-seat destricts in a first-past-the-post seestem. The Sverdlovsk Legislative Assembly wis the first bicameral legislatur ootside an autonomous republic, an the first regional legislatur in Roushie tae elect members bi baith pairty leets an single-seat destricts.

Compliance wi the Chairter is enforcit bi the Chairter Court. The existence o sic regional courts in Roushie, formit an functionin ootside the federal judiciary, awtho challengit, haes been upheld an persistit successfully in maist constituent members o the Federation whaur thay wur established.

Till Preses Putin's reforms o 2004, the Govrenor wis electit bi direct vote for fower-year terms. Eduard Rossel haes been the anerlie electit govrenor (first electit govrenor for an oblast in Roushie) syne 1995 (appointit in 1991 an dismissed in 1993 bi Preses Yeltsin), re-electit in 1999 an 2003.

Chairmen o the Oblast Duma[eedit | eedit soorce]

Name Period
Vyacheslav Surganov Apryle 20, 1996-Apryle 2000
Yevgeny Porunov Apryle 26, 2000-Apryle 2002
Nikolay Voronin Apryle 24, 2002-Apryle 23, 2003
Alexander Zaborov (actin) Apryle 23, 2003-Julie 3, 2003
Nikolay Voronin 3 Julie 2003-23 Mairch 2010
Elena Chechunova 23 Mairch 2010-Incumbent

Chairmen o the Hoose o Representatives o the Legislative Assembly[eedit | eedit soorce]

Name Period
Aleksandr Shaposhnikov 20 Aprile 1996-14 Mey 1998
Pyotr Golenishchev 14 Mey 1998-21 Aprile 2000
Viktor Yakimov 21 Aprile 2000-6 Aprile 2004
Yury Osintsev 6 Aprile 2004-September 2007
Lyudmila Babushkina October 2007-Incumbent

Economy an transportation[eedit | eedit soorce]

The oblast's industry is diverse awtho coud be mair modren. 12% o Roushie's iron an steel industry is still concentratit in Sverdlovsk oblast. Iron an copper are mined an processed here an the loggin industry an firth-processin are important, too.

Yekaterinburg is a prominent road, rail an air hub in the Urals region. As the economic slump subsides, several European airlines stairtit or resumit flichts tae the ceety. Thir include Lufthansa, British Airways, CSA, Turkish Airlines, Austrian Airlines an Finnair. Malév Hungarian Airlines uised tae be amang those carriers but thay haed tae drop thair flichts tae SVX (IATA airport code for Sverdlovsk) efter a few months.

Sister relationships[eedit | eedit soorce]

See an aw[eedit | eedit soorce]

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Президент Российской Федерации. Указ №849 от 13 мая 2000 г. «О полномочном представителе Президента Российской Федерации в федеральном округе». Вступил в силу 13 мая 2000 г. Опубликован: "Собрание законодательства РФ", No. 20, ст. 2112, 15 мая 2000 г. (President of the Russian Federation. Decree #849 of May 13, 2000 On the Plenipotentiary Representative of the President of the Russian Federation in a Federal District. Effective as of May 13, 2000.).
  2. Госстандарт Российской Федерации. №ОК 024-95 27 декабря 1995 г. «Общероссийский классификатор экономических регионов. 2. Экономические районы», в ред. Изменения №5/2001 ОКЭР. (Gosstandart of the Russian Federation. #OK 024-95 December 27, 1995 Russian Classification of Economic Regions. 2. Economic Regions, as amended by the Amendment #5/2001 OKER. ).
  3. Official website of the Governor of Sverdlovsk Oblast. Alexander Sergeyevich Misharin Archived 2012-03-05 at the Wayback Machine (in Roushie)
  4. Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Federal State Statistics Service) (21 Mey 2004). "Территория, число районов, населённых пунктов и сельских администраций по субъектам Российской Федерации (Territory, Number of Districts, Inhabited Localities, and Rural Administration by Federal Subjects of the Russian Federation)". Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved 1 November 2011.CS1 maint: unrecognised leid (link)
  5. a b c d Roushie Federal State Stateestics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 Aw-Roushie Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года [2010 Aw-Roushie Population Census] (in Roushie). Federal State Stateestics Service.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link) CS1 maint: unrecognised leid (link)
  6. "26. Численность постоянного населения Российской Федерации по муниципальным образованиям на 1 января 2018 года". Roushie Federal State Stateestics Service. Retrieved 23 Januar 2019.
  7. "Об исчислении времени". Официальный интернет-портал правовой информации (in Russian). 3 Juin 2011. Retrieved 19 Januar 2019.CS1 maint: unrecognised leid (link)
  8. Offeecial ootthrou the Roushie Federation accordin tae Airticle 68.1 o the Constitution o Roushie.
  9. Roushie Federal State Stateestics Service (21 Mey 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population o Roushie, Its Federal Destricts, Federal Subjects, Destricts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Admeenistrative Centres, an Rural Localities wi Population o Ower 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [Aw-Roushie Population Census o 2002] (in Roushie).CS1 maint: ref=harv (link) CS1 maint: unrecognised leid (link)
  10. "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [Aw Union Population Census o 1989: Present Population o Union an Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts an Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Destricts, Urban Settlements, an Veelages Servin as Destrict Admeenistrative Centres]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [Aw-Union Population Census o 1989] (in Roushie). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute o Demografie at the Naitional Resairch Varsity: Heicher Schuil o Economics]. 1989 – via Demoscope Weekly.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link) CS1 maint: unrecognised leid (link)
  11. "Archived copy". Archived frae the original on 7 Januar 2019. Retrieved 6 Mairch 2012.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  12.[deid airtin]
  13. V.A. Kravchenko: I chose freedom (1946)
  14. Barry, Ellen (5 Januar 2010). "In Russia, a Bankrupt Town Keeps Humming". The New York Times. Retrieved 24 Mey 2010.

Freemit airtins[eedit | eedit soorce]