Platinum

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Platinum,  78Pt
Platinum crystals.jpg
General properties
Appearance grayish white
Staundart atomic wecht (Ar, staundart) 195.084(9)
Platinum in the periodic cairt
Hydrogen Helium
Lithium Beryllium Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine Neon
Sodium Magnesium Aluminium Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon
Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Airn Cobalt Nickel Capper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton
Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium Siller (element) Cadmium Indium Tin Antimony Tellurium Iodine Xenon
Caesium Barium Lanthanum Cerium Praseodymium Neodymium Promethium Samarium Europium Gadolinium Terbium Dysprosium Holmium Erbium Thulium Ytterbium Lutetium Hafnium Tantalum Tungsten Rhenium Osmium Iridium Platinum Gold Mercur (element) Thallium Leid (element) Bismuth Polonium Astatine Radon
Francium Radium Actinium Thorium Protactinium Uranium Neptunium Plutonium Americium Curium Berkelium Californium Einsteinium Fermium Mendelevium Nobelium Lawrencium Rutherfordium Dubnium Seaborgium Bohrium Hassium Meitnerium Darmstadtium Roentgenium Copernicium Ununtrium Flerovium Ununpentium Livermorium Ununseptium Ununoctium
Pd

Pt

Ds
iridiumplatinumgowd
Atomic nummer (Z) 78
Group group 10
Period period 6
Element category   transition metal
Block d-block
Electron confeeguration [Xe] 4f14 5d9 6s1
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 18, 32, 17, 1
Pheesical properties
Phase (at STP) solit
Meltin pynt 2041.4 K ​(1768.3 °C, ​3214.9 °F)
Bylin pynt 4098 K ​(3825 °C, ​6917 °F)
Density (near r.t.) 21.45 g/cm3
when liquid (at m.p.) 19.77 g/cm3
Heat o fusion 22.17 kJ/mol
Heat o vapourisation 469 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity 25.86 J/(mol·K)
Vapour pressur
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 2330 (2550) 2815 3143 3556 4094
Atomic properties
Oxidation states 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1, −1, −2, −3
(mildly basic oxide)
Electronegativity Pauling scale: 2.28
Atomic radius empirical: 139 pm
Covalent radius 136±5 pm
Van der Waals radius 175 pm
Color lines in a spectral range
Miscellanea
Creestal structurface-centred cubic (fcc)
Face-centered cubic creestal structur for platinum
Speed o soond thin rod 2800 m/s (at r.t.)
Thermal expansion 8.8 µm/(m·K) (at 25 °C)
Thermal conductivity 71.6 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity 105 n Ω·m (at 20 °C)
Magnetic orderin paramagnetic
Young's modulus 168 GPa
Shear modulus 61 GPa
Bouk modulus 230 GPa
Poisson ratio 0.38
Mohs haurdness 4–4.5
Vickers haurdness 549 MPa
Brinell haurdness 392 MPa
CAS Nummer 7440-06-4
History
Diskivery Antonio de Ulloa (1735)
First isolation Antonio de Ulloa (1735)
Main isotopes o platinum
Iso­tope Abun­dance Hauf-life (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct
190Pt 0.014% 6.5×1011 y α 186Os
192Pt 0.782% >4.7×1016 y α 188Os
193Pt syn 50 y ε 193Ir
194Pt 32.967% stable
195Pt 33.832% stable
196Pt 25.242% stable
198Pt 7.163% >3.2×1014 y α 194Os
ββ 198Hg
| references | in Wikidata

Platinum is a chemical element wi the chemical seembol Pt an an atomic nummer o 78.

Its name is derived frae the Spainyie term platina, which is leeterally translatit intae "little siller".[1][2] It is a dense, malleable, ductile, precious, gray-white transeetion metal.

Platinum haes sax naiturally occurring isotopes. It is ane o the rarest elements in the Yird's crust an haes an average abundance o approximately 5 μg/kg. It is the least reactive metal. It occurs in some nickel an copper ores alang wi some native deposits, maistly in Sooth Africae, which accoonts for 80% o the warld production.

As a member o the platinum group o elements, as well as o the group 10 o the periodic table o elements, platinum is generally non-reactive. It exhibits a remarkable resistance tae corrosion, even at heich temperaturs, an as sic is considered a noble metal. As a result, platinum is eften foond chemically uncombined as native platinum. Acause it occurs naiturally in the alluvial sands o various rivers, it wis first uised bi pre-Columbie Sooth American natives tae produce artifacts. It wis referenced in European writings as early as 16t century, but it wis nae till Antonio de Ulloa published a report on a new metal o Colombie origin in 1748 that it acame investigated bi scientists.

Platinum is uised in catalytic converters, laboratory equipment, electrical contacts an electrodes, platinum resistance thermometers, dentistry equipment, an jewelry. Acause anly a few hunder tonnes are produced annually, it is a scarce material, an is heichly valuable an is a major precious metal commodity. Bein a hivy metal, it leads tae heal issues upon exposur tae its salts, but due tae its corrosion resistance, it is nae as toxic as some metals.[3] Compoonds containin platinum, maist notably cisplatin, are applee'd in chemotherapy against certaint types o cancer.[4]

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. "platinum (Pt)." Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2012. Web. 24 April 2012
  2. Harper, Douglas. "platinum". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  3. "Platinum|" (PDF). 
  4. Wheate, NJ; Walker, S; Craig, GE; Oun, R (2010). "The status of platinum anticancer drugs in the clinic and in clinical trials". Dalton transactions (Cambridge, England : 2003). 39 (35): 8113–27. doi:10.1039/C0DT00292E. PMID 20593091. 

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