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Platinum,  78Pt
Platinum crystals.jpg
General properties
Name, seembol platinum, Pt
Appearance grayish white
Pronunciation /ˈplætnəm/
Platinum in the periodic cairt
Hydrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Helium (noble gas)
Lithium (alkali metal)
Beryllium (alkaline yird metal)
Boron (metalloid)
Carbon (polyatomic nonmetal)
Nitrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Oxygen (diatomic nonmetal)
Fluorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Neon (noble gas)
Sodium (alkali metal)
Magnesium (alkaline yird metal)
Aluminium (post-transeetion metal)
Silicon (metalloid)
Phosphorus (polyatomic nonmetal)
Sulfur (polyatomic nonmetal)
Chlorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Argon (noble gas)
Potassium (alkali metal)
Calcium (alkaline yird metal)
Scandium (transeetion metal)
Titanium (transeetion metal)
Vanadium (transeetion metal)
Chromium (transeetion metal)
Manganese (transeetion metal)
Airn (transeetion metal)
Cobalt (transeetion metal)
Nickel (transeetion metal)
Capper (transeetion metal)
Zinc (transeetion metal)
Gallium (post-transeetion metal)
Germanium (metalloid)
Arsenic (metalloid)
Selenium (polyatomic nonmetal)
Bromine (diatomic nonmetal)
Krypton (noble gas)
Rubidium (alkali metal)
Strontium (alkaline yird metal)
Yttrium (transeetion metal)
Zirconium (transeetion metal)
Niobium (transeetion metal)
Molybdenum (transeetion metal)
Technetium (transeetion metal)
Ruthenium (transeetion metal)
Rhodium (transeetion metal)
Palladium (transeetion metal)
Siller (transeetion metal)
Cadmium (transeetion metal)
Indium (post-transeetion metal)
Tin (post-transeetion metal)
Antimony (metalloid)
Tellurium (metalloid)
Iodine (diatomic nonmetal)
Xenon (noble gas)
Caesium (alkali metal)
Barium (alkaline yird metal)
Lanthanum (lanthanide)
Cerium (lanthanide)
Praseodymium (lanthanide)
Neodymium (lanthanide)
Promethium (lanthanide)
Samarium (lanthanide)
Europium (lanthanide)
Gadolinium (lanthanide)
Terbium (lanthanide)
Dysprosium (lanthanide)
Holmium (lanthanide)
Erbium (lanthanide)
Thulium (lanthanide)
Ytterbium (lanthanide)
Lutetium (lanthanide)
Hafnium (transeetion metal)
Tantalum (transeetion metal)
Tungsten (transeetion metal)
Rhenium (transeetion metal)
Osmium (transeetion metal)
Iridium (transeetion metal)
Platinum (transeetion metal)
Gold (transeetion metal)
Mercur (transeetion metal)
Thallium (post-transeetion metal)
Leid (post-transeetion metal)
Bismuth (post-transeetion metal)
Polonium (post-transeetion metal)
Astatine (metalloid)
Radon (noble gas)
Francium (alkali metal)
Radium (alkaline yird metal)
Actinium (actinide)
Thorium (actinide)
Protactinium (actinide)
Uranium (actinide)
Neptunium (actinide)
Plutonium (actinide)
Americium (actinide)
Curium (actinide)
Berkelium (actinide)
Californium (actinide)
Einsteinium (actinide)
Fermium (actinide)
Mendelevium (actinide)
Nobelium (actinide)
Lawrencium (actinide)
Rutherfordium (transeetion metal)
Dubnium (transeetion metal)
Seaborgium (transeetion metal)
Bohrium (transeetion metal)
Hassium (transeetion metal)
Meitnerium (unkent chemical properties)
Darmstadtium (unkent chemical properties)
Roentgenium (unkent chemical properties)
Copernicium (transeetion metal)
Ununtrium (unkent chemical properties)
Flerovium (post-transeetion metal)
Ununpentium (unkent chemical properties)
Livermorium (unkent chemical properties)
Ununseptium (unkent chemical properties)
Ununoctium (unkent chemical properties)


Atomic nummer (Z) 78
Group, block group 10, d-block
Period period 6
Element category   transeetion metal
Staundart atomic wicht (Ar) 195.084
Electron configuration [Xe] 4f14 5d9 6s1
per shell
2, 8, 18, 32, 17, 1
Pheesical properties
Phase solid
Meltin pynt 2041.4 K ​(1768.3 °C, ​3214.9 °F)
Bylin pynt 4098 K ​(3825 °C, ​6917 °F)
Density near r.t. 21.45 g/cm3
when liquid, at m.p. 19.77 g/cm3
Heat o fusion 22.17 kJ/mol
Heat o vapourisation 469 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity 25.86 J/(mol·K)
vapour pressur
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 2330 (2550) 2815 3143 3556 4094
Atomic properties
Oxidation states 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1, −1, −2, −3
(mildly basic oxide)
Electronegativity Pauling scale: 2.28
Atomic radius empirical: 139 pm
Covalent radius 136±5 pm
Van der Waals radius 175 pm
Creestal structur face-centred cubic (fcc)
Face-centered cubic crystal structur for platinum
Speed o soond thin rod 2800 m/s (at r.t.)
Thermal expansion 8.8 µm/(m·K) (at 25 °C)
Thermal conductivity 71.6 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity 105 n Ω·m (at 20 °C)
Magnetic orderin paramagnetic
Young's modulus 168 GPa
Shear modulus 61 GPa
Bouk modulus 230 GPa
Poisson ratio 0.38
Mohs haurdness 4–4.5
Vickers haurdness 549 MPa
Brinell haurdness 392 MPa
CAS Nummer 7440-06-4
Diskivery Antonio de Ulloa (1735)
First isolation Antonio de Ulloa (1735)
Maist stable isotopes o platinum
iso NA hauf-life DM DE (MeV) DP
190Pt 0.014% 6.5×1011 y α 3.18 186Os
192Pt 0.782% >4.7×1016 y α - 188Os
193Pt syn 50 y ε - 193Ir
194Pt 32.967% 194Pt is stable wi 116 neutrons
195Pt 33.832% 195Pt is stable wi 117 neutrons
196Pt 25.242% 196Pt is stable wi 118 neutrons
198Pt 7.163% >3.2×1014 y α 0.0870 194Os
ββ 1.0472 198Hg
· references

Platinum is a chemical element wi the chemical seembol Pt an an atomic nummer o 78.

Its name is derived frae the Spainyie term platina, which is leeterally translatit intae "little siller".[1][2] It is a dense, malleable, ductile, precious, gray-white transeetion metal.

Platinum haes sax naiturally occurring isotopes. It is ane o the rarest elements in the Yird's crust an haes an average abundance o approximately 5 μg/kg. It is the least reactive metal. It occurs in some nickel an copper ores alang wi some native deposits, maistly in Sooth Africae, which accoonts for 80% o the warld production.

As a member o the platinum group o elements, as well as o the group 10 o the periodic table o elements, platinum is generally non-reactive. It exhibits a remarkable resistance tae corrosion, even at heich temperaturs, an as sic is considered a noble metal. As a result, platinum is eften foond chemically uncombined as native platinum. Acause it occurs naiturally in the alluvial sands o various rivers, it wis first uised bi pre-Columbie Sooth American natives tae produce artifacts. It wis referenced in European writings as early as 16t century, but it wis nae till Antonio de Ulloa published a report on a new metal o Colombie origin in 1748 that it acame investigated bi scientists.

Platinum is uised in catalytic converters, laboratory equipment, electrical contacts an electrodes, platinum resistance thermometers, dentistry equipment, an jewelry. Acause anly a few hunder tonnes are produced annually, it is a scarce material, an is heichly valuable an is a major precious metal commodity. Bein a hivy metal, it leads tae heal issues upon exposur tae its salts, but due tae its corrosion resistance, it is nae as toxic as some metals.[3] Compoonds containin platinum, maist notably cisplatin, are applee'd in chemotherapy against certain types o cancer.[4]

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. "platinum (Pt)." Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2012. Web. 24 April 2012
  2. Harper, Douglas. "platinum". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  3. "Platinum|" (PDF). 
  4. Wheate, NJ; Walker, S; Craig, GE; Oun, R (2010). "The status of platinum anticancer drugs in the clinic and in clinical trials". Dalton transactions (Cambridge, England : 2003). 39 (35): 8113–27. doi:10.1039/C0DT00292E. PMID 20593091. 

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