Platinum

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Platinum,  78Pt
Platinum crystals.jpg
General properties
Appearancegrayish white
Staundart atomic wecht (Ar, staundart)195.084(9)[1]
Platinum in the periodic cairt
Hydrogen Helium
Lithium Beryllium Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine Neon
Sodium Magnesium Aluminium Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon
Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Airn Cobalt Nickel Capper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton
Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium Siller (element) Cadmium Indium Tin Antimony Tellurium Iodine Xenon
Caesium Barium Lanthanum Cerium Praseodymium Neodymium Promethium Samarium Europium Gadolinium Terbium Dysprosium Holmium Erbium Thulium Ytterbium Lutetium Hafnium Tantalum Tungsten Rhenium Osmium Iridium Platinum Gowd Mercur (element) Thallium Leid (element) Bismuth Polonium Astatine Radon
Francium Radium Actinium Thorium Protactinium Uranium Neptunium Plutonium Americium Curium Berkelium Californium Einsteinium Fermium Mendelevium Nobelium Lawrencium Rutherfordium Dubnium Seaborgium Bohrium Hassium Meitnerium Darmstadtium Roentgenium Copernicium Ununtrium Flerovium Ununpentium Livermorium Ununseptium Ununoctium
Pd

Pt

Ds
iridiumplatinumgowd
Atomic nummer (Z)78
Groupgroup 10
Periodperiod 6
Element category  transition metal
Blockd-block
Electron confeeguration[Xe] 4f14 5d9 6s1
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 18, 32, 17, 1
Pheesical properties
Phase (at STP)solit
Meltin pynt2041.4 K ​(1768.3 °C, ​3214.9 °F)
Bylin pynt4098 K ​(3825 °C, ​6917 °F)
Density (near r.t.)21.45 g/cm3
when liquid (at m.p.)19.77 g/cm3
Heat o fusion22.17 kJ/mol
Heat o vapourisation469 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity25.86 J/(mol·K)
Vapour pressur
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 2330 (2550) 2815 3143 3556 4094
Atomic properties
Oxidation states6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1, −1, −2, −3
(mildly basic oxide)
ElectronegativityPauling scale: 2.28
Atomic radiusempirical: 139 pm
Covalent radius136±5 pm
Van der Waals radius175 pm
Coloyr lines in a spectral range
Spectral lines o Platinum
Miscellanea
Creestal structurface-centred cubic (fcc)
Face-centered cubic creestal structur for platinum
Speed o soond thin rod2800 m/s (at r.t.)
Thermal expansion8.8 µm/(m·K) (at 25 °C)
Thermal conductivity71.6 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity105 n Ω·m (at 20 °C)
Magnetic orderinparamagnetic
Young's modulus168 GPa
Shear modulus61 GPa
Bouk modulus230 GPa
Poisson ratio0.38
Mohs haurdness4–4.5
Vickers haurdness549 MPa
Brinell haurdness392 MPa
CAS Nummer7440-06-4
History
DiskiveryAntonio de Ulloa (1735)
First isolationAntonio de Ulloa (1735)
Main isotopes o platinum
Iso­tope Abun­dance Hauf-life (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct
190Pt 0.014% 6.5×1011 y α 186Os
192Pt 0.782% >4.7×1016 y α 188Os
193Pt syn 50 y ε 193Ir
194Pt 32.967% stable
195Pt 33.832% stable
196Pt 25.242% stable
198Pt 7.163% >3.2×1014 y α 194Os
ββ 198Hg
| references | in Wikidata

Platinum is a chemical element wi the chemical seembol Pt an an atomic nummer o 78.

Its name is derived frae the Spainyie term platina, which is leeterally translatit intae "little siller".[2][3] It is a dense, malleable, ductile, precious, gray-white transeetion metal.

Platinum haes sax naiturally occurring isotopes. It is ane o the rarest elements in the Yird's crust an haes an average abundance o approximately 5 μg/kg. It is the least reactive metal. It occurs in some nickel an copper ores alang wi some native deposits, maistly in Sooth Africae, which accoonts for 80% o the warld production.

As a member o the platinum group o elements, as well as o the group 10 o the periodic table o elements, platinum is generally non-reactive. It exhibits a remarkable resistance tae corrosion, even at heich temperaturs, an as sic is considered a noble metal. As a result, platinum is eften foond chemically uncombined as native platinum. Acause it occurs naiturally in the alluvial sands o various rivers, it wis first uised bi pre-Columbie Sooth American natives tae produce artifacts. It wis referenced in European writings as early as 16t century, but it wis nae till Antonio de Ulloa published a report on a new metal o Colombie origin in 1748 that it acame investigated bi scientists.

Platinum is uised in catalytic converters, laboratory equipment, electrical contacts an electrodes, platinum resistance thermometers, dentistry equipment, an jewelry. Acause anly a few hunder tonnes are produced annually, it is a scarce material, an is heichly valuable an is a major precious metal commodity. Bein a hivy metal, it leads tae heal issues upon exposur tae its salts, but due tae its corrosion resistance, it is nae as toxic as some metals.[4] Compoonds containin platinum, maist notably cisplatin, are applee'd in chemotherapy against certaint types o cancer.[5]

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Meija, J.; et al. (2016). "Atomic weights of the elements 2013 (IUPAC Technical Report)". Pure and Applied Chemistry. 88 (3): 265–91. doi:10.1515/pac-2015-0305. 
  2. "platinum (Pt)." Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2012. Web. 24 April 2012
  3. Harper, Douglas. "platinum". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  4. "Platinum|" (PDF). 
  5. Wheate, NJ; Walker, S; Craig, GE; Oun, R (2010). "The status of platinum anticancer drugs in the clinic and in clinical trials". Dalton transactions (Cambridge, England : 2003). 39 (35): 8113–27. doi:10.1039/C0DT00292E. PMID 20593091. 

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