Frae Wikipedia
Lowp tae: navigation, rake
Cerium,  58Ce
General properties
Name, seembol cerium, Ce
Appearance sillery white
Pronunciation ˈsiriəm
Cerium in the periodic cairt
Hydrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Helium (noble gas)
Lithium (alkali metal)
Beryllium (alkaline yird metal)
Boron (metalloid)
Carbon (polyatomic nonmetal)
Nitrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Oxygen (diatomic nonmetal)
Fluorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Neon (noble gas)
Sodium (alkali metal)
Magnesium (alkaline yird metal)
Aluminium (post-transeetion metal)
Silicon (metalloid)
Phosphorus (polyatomic nonmetal)
Sulfur (polyatomic nonmetal)
Chlorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Argon (noble gas)
Potassium (alkali metal)
Calcium (alkaline yird metal)
Scandium (transeetion metal)
Titanium (transeetion metal)
Vanadium (transeetion metal)
Chromium (transeetion metal)
Manganese (transeetion metal)
Airn (transeetion metal)
Cobalt (transeetion metal)
Nickel (transeetion metal)
Capper (transeetion metal)
Zinc (transeetion metal)
Gallium (post-transeetion metal)
Germanium (metalloid)
Arsenic (metalloid)
Selenium (polyatomic nonmetal)
Bromine (diatomic nonmetal)
Krypton (noble gas)
Rubidium (alkali metal)
Strontium (alkaline yird metal)
Yttrium (transeetion metal)
Zirconium (transeetion metal)
Niobium (transeetion metal)
Molybdenum (transeetion metal)
Technetium (transeetion metal)
Ruthenium (transeetion metal)
Rhodium (transeetion metal)
Palladium (transeetion metal)
Siller (transeetion metal)
Cadmium (transeetion metal)
Indium (post-transeetion metal)
Tin (post-transeetion metal)
Antimony (metalloid)
Tellurium (metalloid)
Iodine (diatomic nonmetal)
Xenon (noble gas)
Caesium (alkali metal)
Barium (alkaline yird metal)
Lanthanum (lanthanide)
Cerium (lanthanide)
Praseodymium (lanthanide)
Neodymium (lanthanide)
Promethium (lanthanide)
Samarium (lanthanide)
Europium (lanthanide)
Gadolinium (lanthanide)
Terbium (lanthanide)
Dysprosium (lanthanide)
Holmium (lanthanide)
Erbium (lanthanide)
Thulium (lanthanide)
Ytterbium (lanthanide)
Lutetium (lanthanide)
Hafnium (transeetion metal)
Tantalum (transeetion metal)
Tungsten (transeetion metal)
Rhenium (transeetion metal)
Osmium (transeetion metal)
Iridium (transeetion metal)
Platinum (transeetion metal)
Gold (transeetion metal)
Mercur (transeetion metal)
Thallium (post-transeetion metal)
Leid (post-transeetion metal)
Bismuth (post-transeetion metal)
Polonium (post-transeetion metal)
Astatine (metalloid)
Radon (noble gas)
Francium (alkali metal)
Radium (alkaline yird metal)
Actinium (actinide)
Thorium (actinide)
Protactinium (actinide)
Uranium (actinide)
Neptunium (actinide)
Plutonium (actinide)
Americium (actinide)
Curium (actinide)
Berkelium (actinide)
Californium (actinide)
Einsteinium (actinide)
Fermium (actinide)
Mendelevium (actinide)
Nobelium (actinide)
Lawrencium (actinide)
Rutherfordium (transeetion metal)
Dubnium (transeetion metal)
Seaborgium (transeetion metal)
Bohrium (transeetion metal)
Hassium (transeetion metal)
Meitnerium (unkent chemical properties)
Darmstadtium (unkent chemical properties)
Roentgenium (unkent chemical properties)
Copernicium (transeetion metal)
Ununtrium (unkent chemical properties)
Flerovium (post-transeetion metal)
Ununpentium (unkent chemical properties)
Livermorium (unkent chemical properties)
Ununseptium (unkent chemical properties)
Ununoctium (unkent chemical properties)


Atomic nummer (Z) 58
Group, block group n/a, f-block
Period period 6
Element category   lanthanide
Staundart atomic wicht (Ar) 140.116
Electron configuration [Xe] 4f1 5d1 6s2[1]
per shell
2, 8, 18, 19, 9, 2
Pheesical properties
Phase solid
Meltin pynt 1068 K ​(795 °C, ​1463 °F)
Bylin pynt 3716 K ​(3443 °C, ​6229 °F)
Density near r.t. 6.770 g/cm3
when liquid, at m.p. 6.55 g/cm3
Heat o fusion 5.46 kJ/mol
Heat o vapourisation 398 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity 26.94 J/(mol·K)
vapour pressur
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 1992 2194 2442 2754 3159 3705
Atomic properties
Oxidation states 4, 3, 2, 1
(mildly basic oxide)
Electronegativity Pauling scale: 1.12
Atomic radius empirical: 181.8 pm
Covalent radius 204±9 pm
Creestal structur face-centred cubic (fcc)
Face-centered cubic crystal structur for cerium
Speed o soond thin rod 2100 m/s (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansion (r.t.) (γ, poly) 6.3 µm/(m·K)
Thermal conductivity 11.3 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity (r.t.) (β, poly) 828 n Ω·m
Magnetic orderin paramagnetic[2]
Young's modulus (γ form) 33.6 GPa
Shear modulus (γ form) 13.5 GPa
Bouk modulus (γ form) 21.5 GPa
Poisson ratio (γ form) 0.24
Mohs haurdness 2.5
Vickers haurdness 270 MPa
Brinell haurdness 412 MPa
CAS Nummer 7440-45-1
Namin efter dwarf planet Ceres, itsel named efter Roman deity o agricultur Ceres
Diskivery Martin Heinrich Klaproth, Jöns Jakob Berzelius, Wilhelm Hisinger (1803)
First isolation Carl Gustaf Mosander (1839)
Maist stable isotopes o cerium
iso NA hauf-life DM DE (MeV) DP
134Ce syn 3.16 d ε 0.500 134La
136Ce 0.185% >3.8×1016 y (β+β+) 2.419 136Ba
138Ce 0.251% >1.5×1014 y (β+β+) 0.694 138Ba
139Ce syn 137.640 d ε 0.278 139La
140Ce 88.450% - (SF) <43.633
141Ce syn 32.501 d β 0.581 141Pr
142Ce 11.114% >5×1016 y (ββ) 1.417 142Nd
(α) 1.298 138Ba
144Ce syn 284.893 d β 0.319 144Pr
Decay modes in parentheses is predict, but hisna yet been observed
· references

Cerium is a chemical element wi seembol Ce an atomic nummer 58. It is a saft, silvery, ductile metal which easily oxidizes in air. Cerium wis named efter the dwarf planet Ceres (itsel named for the Roman goddess o agricultur). Cerium is the maist abundant o the rare yird elements, makin up aboot 0.0046% o the Yird's crust bi wicht. It is foond in a feck o minerals, the maist important bein monazite an bastnasite. Thare a wheen o ommercial applications o cerium. Thay include catalysts, additives fur tae fuel tae reduce emissions an tae glass an enamels tae chynge thair colour. Cerium oxide is an important component o gless polishin pouders an phosphors uised in screens an fluorescent lamps. It is uised in the "flint" (actually ferrocerium) o lichters.

References[eedit | eedit soorce]