Seelicon

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Silicon,  14Si
SiliconCroda.jpg
General properties
Appearance crystalline, reflective wi bluish-tinged faces
Staundart atomic wecht (Ar, staundart) [28.08428.086] conventional: 28.085
Silicon in the periodic cairt
Hydrogen Helium
Lithium Beryllium Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine Neon
Sodium Magnesium Aluminium Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon
Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Airn Cobalt Nickel Capper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton
Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium Siller (element) Cadmium Indium Tin Antimony Tellurium Iodine Xenon
Caesium Barium Lanthanum Cerium Praseodymium Neodymium Promethium Samarium Europium Gadolinium Terbium Dysprosium Holmium Erbium Thulium Ytterbium Lutetium Hafnium Tantalum Tungsten Rhenium Osmium Iridium Platinum Gold Mercur (element) Thallium Leid (element) Bismuth Polonium Astatine Radon
Francium Radium Actinium Thorium Protactinium Uranium Neptunium Plutonium Americium Curium Berkelium Californium Einsteinium Fermium Mendelevium Nobelium Lawrencium Rutherfordium Dubnium Seaborgium Bohrium Hassium Meitnerium Darmstadtium Roentgenium Copernicium Ununtrium Flerovium Ununpentium Livermorium Ununseptium Ununoctium
C

Si

Ge
aluminiumsiliconphosphorus
Atomic nummer (Z) 14
Group group 14 (caurbon group)
Period period 3
Element category   metalloid
Block p-block
Electron confeeguration [Ne] 3s2 3p2
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 4
Pheesical properties
Phase (at STP) solit
Meltin pynt 1687 K ​(1414 °C, ​2577 °F)
Bylin pynt 3538 K ​(3265 °C, ​5909 °F)
Density (near r.t.) 2.3290 g/cm3
when liquid (at m.p.) 2.57 g/cm3
Heat o fusion 50.21 kJ/mol
Heat o vapourisation 359 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity 19.789 J/(mol·K)
Vapour pressur
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 1908 2102 2339 2636 3021 3537
Atomic properties
Oxidation states 4, 3, 2, 1[1] -1, -2, -3, -4 amphoteric oxide
Electronegativity Pauling scale: 1.90
Ionisation energies
Atomic radius empirical: 111 pm
Covalent radius 111 pm
Van der Waals radius 210 pm
Color lines in a spectral range
Miscellanea
Creestal structurdiamond cubic
Diamond cubic creestal structur for silicon
Speed o soond thin rod 8433 m/s (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansion 2.6 µm/(m·K) (at 25 °C)
Thermal conductivity 149 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity 103[2] Ω·m (at 20 °C)
Magnetic orderin diamagnetic[3]
Young's modulus 130-188[4] GPa
Shear modulus 51-80[4] GPa
Bouk modulus 97.6[4] GPa
Poisson ratio 0.064 - 0.28[4]
Mohs haurdness 7
CAS Nummer 7440-21-3
History
Predeection Antoine Lavoisier (1787)
Diskivery Jöns Jacob Berzelius[5][6] (1823)
First isolation Jöns Jacob Berzelius (1823)
Named bi Thomas Thomson (1817)
Main isotopes o silicon
Iso­tope Abun­dance Hauf-life (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct
28Si 92.23% stable
29Si 4.67% stable
30Si 3.1% stable
32Si trace 153 y β 32P
| references | in Wikidata

Seelicon, a tetravalent metalloid, is a chemical element wi the seembol Si an atomic nummer 14. It is less reactive nor its chemical analog caurbon, the nonmetal directly abuin it in the periodic table, but mair reactive nor germanium, the metalloid directly ablo it in the table. Controversy aboot seelicon's chairacter dates tae its discovery; it wis first prepared an characterized in pure furm in 1823. In 1808, it wis gien the name silicium (frae Laitin: silex, haird stane or flint), wi an -ium wird-endin tae suggest a metal, a name which the element retains in several non-Inglis leids. Houiver, its final Inglis name, first suggestit in 1817, reflects the mair pheesically seemilar elements carbon an boron.

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Ram, R. S.; et al. (1998). "Fourier Transform Emission Spectroscopy of the A2D–X2P Transition of SiH and SiD" (PDF). J. Mol. Spectr. 190: 341–352. PMID 9668026. 
  2. Physical Properties of Silicon. New Semiconductor Materials. Characteristics and Properties. Ioffe Institute
  3. Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds, in Lide, D. R., ed. (2005). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (86th ed.). Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press. ISBN 0-8493-0486-5. 
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 [1] Hopcroft, et al., "What is the Young's Modulus of Silicon?" IEEE Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems, 2010
  5. Weeks, Mary Elvira (1932). "The discovery of the elements: XII. Other elements isolated with the aid of potassium and sodium: beryllium, boron, silicon, and aluminum". Journal of Chemical Education. 9 (8): 1386–1412. Bibcode:1932JChEd...9.1386W. doi:10.1021/ed009p1386. 
  6. Voronkov, M. G. (2007). "Silicon era". Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry. 80 (12): 2190. doi:10.1134/S1070427207120397.