Hydrogen

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Hydrogen,  1H
Hydrogen discharge tube.jpg
Purpie glowe in its plasma state
General properties
Appearancecolorless gas
Staundart atomic wecht (Ar, staundart)[1.007841.00811] conventional: 1.008
Hydrogen in the periodic cairt
Hydrogen Helium
Lithium Beryllium Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine Neon
Sodium Magnesium Aluminium Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon
Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Airn Cobalt Nickel Capper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton
Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium Siller (element) Cadmium Indium Tin Antimony Tellurium Iodine Xenon
Caesium Barium Lanthanum Cerium Praseodymium Neodymium Promethium Samarium Europium Gadolinium Terbium Dysprosium Holmium Erbium Thulium Ytterbium Lutetium Hafnium Tantalum Tungsten Rhenium Osmium Iridium Platinum Gowd Mercur (element) Thallium Leid (element) Bismuth Polonium Astatine Radon
Francium Radium Actinium Thorium Protactinium Uranium Neptunium Plutonium Americium Curium Berkelium Californium Einsteinium Fermium Mendelevium Nobelium Lawrencium Rutherfordium Dubnium Seaborgium Bohrium Hassium Meitnerium Darmstadtium Roentgenium Copernicium Ununtrium Flerovium Ununpentium Livermorium Ununseptium Ununoctium


H

Li
– ← hydrogenhelium
Atomic nummer (Z)1
Groupgroup 1
Periodperiod 1
Element category  diatomic nonmetal
Blocks-block
Electron confeeguration1s1
Electrons per shell
1
Pheesical properties
Colourcolorless
Phase (at STP)gas
Meltin pynt13.99 K ​(−259.16 °C, ​−434.49 °F)
Bylin pynt20.271 K ​(−252.879 °C, ​−423.182 °F)
Density (at STP)0.08988 g/L
when liquid (at m.p.)0.07 g/cm3 (solit: 0.0763 g/cm3)[1]
when liquid (at b.p.)0.07099 g/cm3
Treeple pynt13.8033 K, ​7.041 kPa
Creetical pynt32.938 K, 1.2858 MPa
Heat o fusion(H2) 0.117 kJ/mol
Heat o vapourisation(H2) 0.904 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity(H2) 28.836 J/(mol·K)
Vapour pressur
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 15 20
Atomic properties
Oxidation states−1, +1 ​(an amphoteric oxide)
ElectronegativityPauling scale: 2.20
Ionisation energies
  • 1st: 1312.0 kJ/mol
Covalent radius31±5 pm
Van der Waals radius120 pm
Coloyr lines in a spectral range
Spectral lines o Hydrogen
Miscellanea
Creestal structurhexagonal
Hexagonal creestal structur for hydrogen
Speed o soond1310 m/s (gas, 27 °C)
Thermal conductivity0.1805 W/(m·K)
Magnetic orderindiamagnetic[2]
Magnetic susceptibility−3.98·10−6 cm3/mol (298 K)[3]
CAS Nummer12385-13-6
1333-74-0 (H2)
History
DiskiveryHenry Cavendish[4][5] (1766)
Named biAntoine Lavoisier[6] (1783)
Main isotopes o hydrogen
Iso­tope Abun­dance Hauf-life (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct
1H 99.98% stable
2H 0.02% stable
3H trace 12.32 y β 3He
| references | in Wikidata

Hydrogen is the least wechtie atom in the universe, wi the atomic nummer o 1. It haes the seembol H, an a atomic wecht o 1.007 94 u. Hydrogen is aften lik tae burn an gin it burns in air, it jynes wi oxygen tae mak watter.

Hydrogen gas (H2) wis first made bi human haunds in the 16t century frae the kirnin o metals wi strang acids. In 1766-1781, Henry Cavendish wis the first ane ti ken that hydrogen gas is a discreet thing. Yin o the ideas for replacin motor fuel is tae uise hydrogen insteid, sin fuel maks orra gasses whan it burns, but hydrogen juist maks watter. Acause o this, we caw the element hydrogen, that beirs "watter-shaper" in Greek.

Tho hydrogen is the maist common atom in the universe, makin aboot 75% o the universe's maess. Maist hydrogen is grippit in starns, sae bodies canna get uise o it.

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Wiberg, Egon; Wiberg, Nils; Holleman, Arnold Frederick (2001). Inorganic chemistry. Academic Press. p. 240. ISBN 0123526515. 
  2. Lide, D. R., ed. (2005). "Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds". CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (PDF) (86th ed.). Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press. ISBN 0-8493-0486-5. 
  3. Weast, Robert (1984). CRC, Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. Boca Raton, Florida: Chemical Rubber Company Publishing. pp. E110. ISBN 0-8493-0464-4. 
  4. "Hydrogen". Van Nostrand's Encyclopedia of Chemistry. Wylie-Interscience. 2005. pp. 797–799. ISBN 0-471-61525-0. 
  5. Emsley, John (2001). Nature's Building Blocks. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 183–191. ISBN 0-19-850341-5. 
  6. Stwertka, Albert (1996). A Guide to the Elements. Oxford University Press. pp. 16–21. ISBN 0-19-508083-1. 
  7. Meija, J.; et al. (2016). "Atomic weights of the elements 2013 (IUPAC Technical Report)". Pure and Applied Chemistry. 88 (3): 265–91. doi:10.1515/pac-2015-0305.