Oxygen

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Oxygen,  8O
Liquid oxygen in a beaker 4.jpg
Liquid oxygen, bylin in beaker at ruim temperatur
Oxygen spectre.jpg
Spectral lines o oxygen
General properties
Name, seembol oxygen, O
Appearance gas: colourless
liquid: pale blue
Pronunciation
OK-si-jən
Oxygen in the periodic cairt
Hydrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Helium (noble gas)
Lithium (alkali metal)
Beryllium (alkaline yird metal)
Boron (metalloid)
Carbon (polyatomic nonmetal)
Nitrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Oxygen (diatomic nonmetal)
Fluorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Neon (noble gas)
Sodium (alkali metal)
Magnesium (alkaline yird metal)
Aluminium (post-transeetion metal)
Silicon (metalloid)
Phosphorus (polyatomic nonmetal)
Sulfur (polyatomic nonmetal)
Chlorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Argon (noble gas)
Potassium (alkali metal)
Calcium (alkaline yird metal)
Scandium (transeetion metal)
Titanium (transeetion metal)
Vanadium (transeetion metal)
Chromium (transeetion metal)
Manganese (transeetion metal)
Airn (transeetion metal)
Cobalt (transeetion metal)
Nickel (transeetion metal)
Capper (transeetion metal)
Zinc (transeetion metal)
Gallium (post-transeetion metal)
Germanium (metalloid)
Arsenic (metalloid)
Selenium (polyatomic nonmetal)
Bromine (diatomic nonmetal)
Krypton (noble gas)
Rubidium (alkali metal)
Strontium (alkaline yird metal)
Yttrium (transeetion metal)
Zirconium (transeetion metal)
Niobium (transeetion metal)
Molybdenum (transeetion metal)
Technetium (transeetion metal)
Ruthenium (transeetion metal)
Rhodium (transeetion metal)
Palladium (transeetion metal)
Siller (transeetion metal)
Cadmium (transeetion metal)
Indium (post-transeetion metal)
Tin (post-transeetion metal)
Antimony (metalloid)
Tellurium (metalloid)
Iodine (diatomic nonmetal)
Xenon (noble gas)
Caesium (alkali metal)
Barium (alkaline yird metal)
Lanthanum (lanthanide)
Cerium (lanthanide)
Praseodymium (lanthanide)
Neodymium (lanthanide)
Promethium (lanthanide)
Samarium (lanthanide)
Europium (lanthanide)
Gadolinium (lanthanide)
Terbium (lanthanide)
Dysprosium (lanthanide)
Holmium (lanthanide)
Erbium (lanthanide)
Thulium (lanthanide)
Ytterbium (lanthanide)
Lutetium (lanthanide)
Hafnium (transeetion metal)
Tantalum (transeetion metal)
Tungsten (transeetion metal)
Rhenium (transeetion metal)
Osmium (transeetion metal)
Iridium (transeetion metal)
Platinum (transeetion metal)
Gold (transeetion metal)
Mercur (transeetion metal)
Thallium (post-transeetion metal)
Leid (post-transeetion metal)
Bismuth (post-transeetion metal)
Polonium (post-transeetion metal)
Astatine (metalloid)
Radon (noble gas)
Francium (alkali metal)
Radium (alkaline yird metal)
Actinium (actinide)
Thorium (actinide)
Protactinium (actinide)
Uranium (actinide)
Neptunium (actinide)
Plutonium (actinide)
Americium (actinide)
Curium (actinide)
Berkelium (actinide)
Californium (actinide)
Einsteinium (actinide)
Fermium (actinide)
Mendelevium (actinide)
Nobelium (actinide)
Lawrencium (actinide)
Rutherfordium (transeetion metal)
Dubnium (transeetion metal)
Seaborgium (transeetion metal)
Bohrium (transeetion metal)
Hassium (transeetion metal)
Meitnerium (unkent chemical properties)
Darmstadtium (unkent chemical properties)
Roentgenium (unkent chemical properties)
Copernicium (transeetion metal)
Ununtrium (unkent chemical properties)
Flerovium (post-transeetion metal)
Ununpentium (unkent chemical properties)
Livermorium (unkent chemical properties)
Ununseptium (unkent chemical properties)
Ununoctium (unkent chemical properties)


O

S
nitrogenoxygenfluorine
Atomic nummer (Z) 8
Group, block group 16 (chalcogens), p-block
Period period 2
Staundart atomic wicht (Ar)
Electron configuration [He] 2s2 2p4
per shell
2, 6
Pheesical properties
Phase gas
Meltin pynt 54.36 K ​(−218.79 °C, ​−361.82 °F)
Bylin pynt 90.188 K ​(−182.962 °C, ​−297.332 °F)
Density at stp (0 °C and 101.325 kPa) 1.429 g/L
when liquid, at b.p. 1.141 g/cm3
Triple pynt 54.361 K, ​0.1463 kPa
Creetical pynt 154.581 K, 5.043 MPa
Heat o fusion (O2) 0.444 kJ/mol
Heat o vapourisation (O2) 6.82 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity (O2) 29.378 J/(mol·K)
vapour pressur
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K)       61 73 90
Atomic properties
Oxidation states 2, 1, −1, −2
Electronegativity Pauling scale: 3.44
Ionisation energies 1st: 1313.9 kJ/mol
2nt: 3388.3 kJ/mol
3rd: 5300.5 kJ/mol
(mair)
Covalent radius 66±2 pm
Van der Waals radius 152 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structur cubic
Cubic crystal structur for oxygen
Speed o soond 330 m/s (gas, at 27 °C)
Thermal conductivity 26.58×10−3  W/(m·K)
Magnetic orderin paramagnetic
CAS Nummer 7782-44-7
History
Discovery Carl Wilhelm Scheele (1771)
Named bi Antoine Lavoisier (1777)
Maist stable isotopes o oxygen
iso NA hauf-life DM DE (MeV) DP
16O 99.76% 16O is stable wi 8 neutrons
17O 0.04% 17O is stable wi 9 neutrons
18O 0.20% 18O is stable wi 10 neutrons
· references

Oxygen is a chemical element wi seembol O an atomic nummer 8. It is a member o the chalcogen group on the periodic cairt an is a heichly reactive nonmetal an oxidisin agent that readily forms oxides wi maist elements as well as ither compoonds.[1] Bi mass, oxygen is the third-maist abundant element in the universe, efter hydrogen an helium.[2] At staundart temperatur an pressur, twa atoms o the element bind tae form dioxygen, a colourless an odourless diatomic gas wi the formula O
2
. This is an important pairt o the atmosphere an diatomic oxygen gas constitutes 20.8% o the Yird's atmosphere.[3] Addeetionally, as oxides the element maks up awmaist hauf o the Yird's crust.[4]

Dioxygen is uised in cellular respiration an mony major classes o organic molecules in livin organisms conteen oxygen, such as proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, an fats, as dae the major consteetuent inorganic compoonds o ainimal shells, teeth, an bane. Maist o the mass o livin organisms is oxygen as a component o watter, the major constituent o lifeforms. Conversely, oxygen is continuously replenished bi photosynthesis, which uises the energy o sunlicht tae produce oxygen frae watter an carbon dioxide. Oxygen is ower chemically reactive tae remeen a free element in air withoot bein continuously replenished bi the photosynthetic action o livin organisms. Anither form (allotrope) o oxygen, ozone (O
3
), strangly absorbs ultraviolet UVB radiation an the heich-altitude ozone layer helps pertect the biosphere frae ultraviolet radiation. But ozone is a pollutant near the surface whaur it is a bi-product o smog. At law yird orbit altitudes, sufficient atomic oxygen is present tae cause corrosion o spacecraft.[5]

Oxygen wis discovered independently bi Carl Wilhelm Scheele, in Uppsala, in 1773 or earlier, an Joseph Priestley in Wiltshire, in 1774, but Priestley is eften gien priority acause his wark wis published first. The name oxygen wis coined in 1777 by Antoine Lavoisier,[6] whase experiments wi oxygen helped tae discredit the then-popular phlogiston theory o combustion an corrosion. Its name derives frae the Greek roots ὀξύς oxys, "acid", leeterally "sharp", referrin tae the soor taste o acids an -γενής -genes, "producer", leeterally "begetter", acause at the time o namin, it wis mistakenly thocht that aw acids required oxygen in thair composeetion.

Common uise o oxygen includes residential heatin, internal combustion ingines, production o steel, plastics an textiles, brazin, waldin an cuttin o steels an ither metals, rocket propellant, oxygen therapy, an life support seestems in aircraft, submarines, spaceflicht an divin.

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. "WebElements: the periodic table on the web – Oxygen: electronegativities". WebElements.com. Retrieved November 7, 2011. 
  2. Emsley 2001, p.297
  3. Cook & Lauer 1968, p.500
  4. "Oxygen". Los Alamos National Laboratory. Archived frae the original on October 26, 2007. Retrieved December 16, 2007. 
  5. "Atomic oxygen erosion". Archived frae the original on Juin 13, 2007. Retrieved August 8, 2009. 
  6. Parks, G. D.; Mellor, J. W. (1939). Mellor's Modern Inorganic Chemistry (6th ed.). London: Longmans, Green and Co.