Palladium

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Palladium,  46Pd
Palladium.jpg
General properties
Appearance sillery white
Staundart atomic wecht (Ar, staundart) 106.42(1)
Palladium in the periodic cairt
Hydrogen Helium
Lithium Beryllium Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine Neon
Sodium Magnesium Aluminium Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon
Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Airn Cobalt Nickel Capper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton
Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium Siller (element) Cadmium Indium Tin Antimony Tellurium Iodine Xenon
Caesium Barium Lanthanum Cerium Praseodymium Neodymium Promethium Samarium Europium Gadolinium Terbium Dysprosium Holmium Erbium Thulium Ytterbium Lutetium Hafnium Tantalum Tungsten Rhenium Osmium Iridium Platinum Gold Mercur (element) Thallium Leid (element) Bismuth Polonium Astatine Radon
Francium Radium Actinium Thorium Protactinium Uranium Neptunium Plutonium Americium Curium Berkelium Californium Einsteinium Fermium Mendelevium Nobelium Lawrencium Rutherfordium Dubnium Seaborgium Bohrium Hassium Meitnerium Darmstadtium Roentgenium Copernicium Ununtrium Flerovium Ununpentium Livermorium Ununseptium Ununoctium
Ni

Pd

Pt
rhodiumpalladiumsiller
Atomic nummer (Z) 46
Group group 10
Period period 5
Element category   transition metal
Block d-block
Electron confeeguration [Kr] 4d10
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 18, 18
Pheesical properties
Phase (at STP) solit
Meltin pynt 1828.05 K ​(1554.9 °C, ​2830.82 °F)
Bylin pynt 3236 K ​(2963 °C, ​5365 °F)
Density (near r.t.) 12.023 g/cm3
when liquid (at m.p.) 10.38 g/cm3
Heat o fusion 16.74 kJ/mol
Heat o vapourisation 362 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity 25.98 J/(mol·K)
Vapour pressur
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 1721 1897 2117 2395 2753 3234
Atomic properties
Oxidation states 0, +1, +2, +4, +6
(mildly basic oxide)
Electronegativity Pauling scale: 2.20
Atomic radius empirical: 137 pm
Covalent radius 139±6 pm
Van der Waals radius 163 pm
Color lines in a spectral range
Miscellanea
Creestal structur face-centred cubic (fcc)
Face-centered cubic creestal structur for palladium
Speed o soond thin rod 3070 m/s (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansion 11.8 µm/(m·K) (at 25 °C)
Thermal conductivity 71.8 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity 105.4 n Ω·m (at 20 °C)
Magnetic orderin paramagnetic[1]
Young's modulus 121 GPa
Shear modulus 44 GPa
Bouk modulus 180 GPa
Poisson ratio 0.39
Mohs haurdness 4.75
Vickers haurdness 461 MPa
Brinell haurdness 310 MPa
CAS Nummer 7440-05-3
History
Diskivery William Hyde Wollaston (1803)
First isolation William Hyde Wollaston (1803)
Main isotopes o palladium
Iso­tope Abun­dance Hauf-life (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct
100Pd syn 3.63 d ε - 100Rh
γ 0.084, 0.074,
0.126
-
102Pd 1.02% stable
103Pd syn 16.991 d ε 103Rh
104Pd 11.14% stable
105Pd 22.33% stable
106Pd 27.33% stable
107Pd trace 6.5×106 y β 107Ag
108Pd 26.46% stable
110Pd 11.72% >6×1017 y ββ 110Cd
| references | in Wikidata

Palladium is a chemical element wi the chemical seembol Pd an an atomic nummer o 46. It is a rare an lustrous sillery-white metal discovered in 1803 bi William Hyde Wollaston. He named it efter the asteroid Pallas, that wis itsel named efter the epithet o the Greek goddess Athena, acquired bi her whan she slew Pallas. Palladium, platinum, rhodium, ruthenium, iridium an osmium fairm a group o elements referred tae as the platinum group metals (PGMs). Thae hae seemilar chemical properties, but palladium haes the lawest meltin pynt an is the least dense o thaim.

Ower hauf o the supply o palladium an its congener platinum gangs intae catalytic converters, that convert up tae 90% o harmfu gases frae auto exhaust (hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, an nitrogen dioxide) intae less-harmful substances (nitrogen, carbon dioxide an watter vapor). Palladium is uised in electronics, dentistry, medicine, hydrogen purification, chemical applications, groundwatter treatment an jewelry. Palladium plays a key role in the technology uised for fuel cells, that combine hydrogen an oxygen tae produce electricity, heat, an watter.

Ore deposits o palladium an ither PGMs are rare, an the maist extensive deposits hae been foond in the norite belt o the Bushveld Igneous Complex coverin the Transvaal Basin in Sooth Africae, the Stillwatter Complex in Montana, Unitit States, the Thunder Bay Destrict o Ontario, Canadae, an the Norilsk Complex in Roushie. Recyclin is a soorce o palladium, maistly frae scrapped catalytic converters. The numerous applications an leemitit supply soorces o palladium result in the metal attractin considerable investment interest.

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds, in Lide, D. R., ed. (2005). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (86th ed.). Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press. ISBN 0-8493-0486-5. 

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