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Potassium,  19K
Potassium Spectrum.jpg
Potassium pearls unner paraffin ile. The lairge pearl measures 0.5 cm. Albo: spectral lines o potassium
General properties
Name, seembol potassium, K
Appearance sillery gray
Pronunciation /pˈtæsiəm/ po-TAS-ee-əm
Potassium in the periodic cairt
Hydrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Helium (noble gas)
Lithium (alkali metal)
Beryllium (alkaline yird metal)
Boron (metalloid)
Carbon (polyatomic nonmetal)
Nitrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Oxygen (diatomic nonmetal)
Fluorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Neon (noble gas)
Sodium (alkali metal)
Magnesium (alkaline yird metal)
Aluminium (post-transeetion metal)
Silicon (metalloid)
Phosphorus (polyatomic nonmetal)
Sulfur (polyatomic nonmetal)
Chlorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Argon (noble gas)
Potassium (alkali metal)
Calcium (alkaline yird metal)
Scandium (transeetion metal)
Titanium (transeetion metal)
Vanadium (transeetion metal)
Chromium (transeetion metal)
Manganese (transeetion metal)
Airn (transeetion metal)
Cobalt (transeetion metal)
Nickel (transeetion metal)
Capper (transeetion metal)
Zinc (transeetion metal)
Gallium (post-transeetion metal)
Germanium (metalloid)
Arsenic (metalloid)
Selenium (polyatomic nonmetal)
Bromine (diatomic nonmetal)
Krypton (noble gas)
Rubidium (alkali metal)
Strontium (alkaline yird metal)
Yttrium (transeetion metal)
Zirconium (transeetion metal)
Niobium (transeetion metal)
Molybdenum (transeetion metal)
Technetium (transeetion metal)
Ruthenium (transeetion metal)
Rhodium (transeetion metal)
Palladium (transeetion metal)
Siller (transeetion metal)
Cadmium (transeetion metal)
Indium (post-transeetion metal)
Tin (post-transeetion metal)
Antimony (metalloid)
Tellurium (metalloid)
Iodine (diatomic nonmetal)
Xenon (noble gas)
Caesium (alkali metal)
Barium (alkaline yird metal)
Lanthanum (lanthanide)
Cerium (lanthanide)
Praseodymium (lanthanide)
Neodymium (lanthanide)
Promethium (lanthanide)
Samarium (lanthanide)
Europium (lanthanide)
Gadolinium (lanthanide)
Terbium (lanthanide)
Dysprosium (lanthanide)
Holmium (lanthanide)
Erbium (lanthanide)
Thulium (lanthanide)
Ytterbium (lanthanide)
Lutetium (lanthanide)
Hafnium (transeetion metal)
Tantalum (transeetion metal)
Tungsten (transeetion metal)
Rhenium (transeetion metal)
Osmium (transeetion metal)
Iridium (transeetion metal)
Platinum (transeetion metal)
Gold (transeetion metal)
Mercur (transeetion metal)
Thallium (post-transeetion metal)
Leid (post-transeetion metal)
Bismuth (post-transeetion metal)
Polonium (post-transeetion metal)
Astatine (metalloid)
Radon (noble gas)
Francium (alkali metal)
Radium (alkaline yird metal)
Actinium (actinide)
Thorium (actinide)
Protactinium (actinide)
Uranium (actinide)
Neptunium (actinide)
Plutonium (actinide)
Americium (actinide)
Curium (actinide)
Berkelium (actinide)
Californium (actinide)
Einsteinium (actinide)
Fermium (actinide)
Mendelevium (actinide)
Nobelium (actinide)
Lawrencium (actinide)
Rutherfordium (transeetion metal)
Dubnium (transeetion metal)
Seaborgium (transeetion metal)
Bohrium (transeetion metal)
Hassium (transeetion metal)
Meitnerium (unkent chemical properties)
Darmstadtium (unkent chemical properties)
Roentgenium (unkent chemical properties)
Copernicium (transeetion metal)
Ununtrium (unkent chemical properties)
Flerovium (post-transeetion metal)
Ununpentium (unkent chemical properties)
Livermorium (unkent chemical properties)
Ununseptium (unkent chemical properties)
Ununoctium (unkent chemical properties)


Atomic nummer (Z) 19
Group, block group 1 (alkali metals), s-block
Period period 4
Element category   alkali metal
Staundart atomic wicht (±) (Ar) 39.0983(1)
Electron configuration [Ar] 4s1
per shell
2, 8, 8, 1
Pheesical properties
Phase solid
Meltin pynt 336.7 K ​(63.5 °C, ​146.3 °F)
Bylin pynt 1032 K ​(759 °C, ​1398 °F)
Density near r.t. 0.862 g/cm3
when liquid, at m.p. 0.828 g/cm3
Creetical pynt 2223 K, 16[1] MPa
Heat o fusion 2.33 kJ/mol
Heat o vapourisation 76.9 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity 29.6 J/(mol·K)
Atomic properties
Oxidation states 1, −1 ​strangly basic oxide
Electronegativity Pauling scale: 0.82
Ionisation energies
Atomic radius empirical: 227 pm
Covalent radius 203±12 pm
Van der Waals radius 275 pm
Crystal structur body-centered cubic (bcc)
Body-centered cubic crystal structur for potassium
Speed o soond thin rod 2000 m/s (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansion 83.3 µm/(m·K) (at 25 °C)
Thermal conductivity 102.5 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity 72 n Ω·m (at 20 °C)
Magnetic orderin paramagnetic[2]
Young's modulus 3.53 GPa
Shear modulus 1.3 GPa
Bulk modulus 3.1 GPa
Mohs haurdness 0.4
Brinell haurdness 0.363 MPa
CAS Nummer 7440-09-7
Discovery Humphry Davy (1807)
First isolation Humphry Davy (1807)
Maist stable isotopes o potassium
iso NA hauf-life DM DE (MeV) DP
39K 93.26% 39K is stable wi 20 neutrons
40K 0.012% 1.248(3)×109 y β 1.311 40Ca
ε 1.505 40Ar
β+ 1.505 40Ar
41K 6.73% 41K is stable wi 22 neutrons
· references

Potassium is a chemical element wi seembol K (frae Neo-Laitin kalium) an atomic nummer 19. Elemental potassium is a saft sillery-white alkali metal that oxidizes rapidly in air an is very reactive wi watter, generatin sufficient heat tae ignite the hydrogen emittit in the reaction an burnin wi a lilac flame. Naiturally occurrin potassium is componed o three isotopes, ane o which, 40K, is radioactive. Traces (0.012%) o this isotope is foond in aw potassium makin it the maist common radioactive element in the human body an in many biological materials, as well as in common biggin materials such as concrete.

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Haynes, William M., ed. (2011). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (92nt ed.). CRC Press. p. 4.122. ISBN 1439855110. 
  2. Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds, in Lide, D. R., ed. (2005). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (86th ed.). Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press. ISBN 0-8493-0486-5.