Fluorine

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Fluorine,  9F
Smaa sample o pale yellae liquid fluorine condensed in liquid nitrogen
Liquid fluorine at cryogenic temperaturs
General properties
Name, seembol fluorine, F
Appearance gas: vera fauch yellae
liquid: bricht yellae
solid: skyre (beta), opaque (alpha)
Pronunciation /fluːrin/ or /ˈfloːrin/
Fluorine in the periodic cairt
Hydrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Helium (noble gas)
Lithium (alkali metal)
Beryllium (alkaline yird metal)
Boron (metalloid)
Carbon (polyatomic nonmetal)
Nitrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Oxygen (diatomic nonmetal)
Fluorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Neon (noble gas)
Sodium (alkali metal)
Magnesium (alkaline yird metal)
Aluminium (post-transeetion metal)
Silicon (metalloid)
Phosphorus (polyatomic nonmetal)
Sulfur (polyatomic nonmetal)
Chlorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Argon (noble gas)
Potassium (alkali metal)
Calcium (alkaline yird metal)
Scandium (transeetion metal)
Titanium (transeetion metal)
Vanadium (transeetion metal)
Chromium (transeetion metal)
Manganese (transeetion metal)
Airn (transeetion metal)
Cobalt (transeetion metal)
Nickel (transeetion metal)
Capper (transeetion metal)
Zinc (transeetion metal)
Gallium (post-transeetion metal)
Germanium (metalloid)
Arsenic (metalloid)
Selenium (polyatomic nonmetal)
Bromine (diatomic nonmetal)
Krypton (noble gas)
Rubidium (alkali metal)
Strontium (alkaline yird metal)
Yttrium (transeetion metal)
Zirconium (transeetion metal)
Niobium (transeetion metal)
Molybdenum (transeetion metal)
Technetium (transeetion metal)
Ruthenium (transeetion metal)
Rhodium (transeetion metal)
Palladium (transeetion metal)
Siller (transeetion metal)
Cadmium (transeetion metal)
Indium (post-transeetion metal)
Tin (post-transeetion metal)
Antimony (metalloid)
Tellurium (metalloid)
Iodine (diatomic nonmetal)
Xenon (noble gas)
Caesium (alkali metal)
Barium (alkaline yird metal)
Lanthanum (lanthanide)
Cerium (lanthanide)
Praseodymium (lanthanide)
Neodymium (lanthanide)
Promethium (lanthanide)
Samarium (lanthanide)
Europium (lanthanide)
Gadolinium (lanthanide)
Terbium (lanthanide)
Dysprosium (lanthanide)
Holmium (lanthanide)
Erbium (lanthanide)
Thulium (lanthanide)
Ytterbium (lanthanide)
Lutetium (lanthanide)
Hafnium (transeetion metal)
Tantalum (transeetion metal)
Tungsten (transeetion metal)
Rhenium (transeetion metal)
Osmium (transeetion metal)
Iridium (transeetion metal)
Platinum (transeetion metal)
Gold (transeetion metal)
Mercur (transeetion metal)
Thallium (post-transeetion metal)
Leid (post-transeetion metal)
Bismuth (post-transeetion metal)
Polonium (post-transeetion metal)
Astatine (metalloid)
Radon (noble gas)
Francium (alkali metal)
Radium (alkaline yird metal)
Actinium (actinide)
Thorium (actinide)
Protactinium (actinide)
Uranium (actinide)
Neptunium (actinide)
Plutonium (actinide)
Americium (actinide)
Curium (actinide)
Berkelium (actinide)
Californium (actinide)
Einsteinium (actinide)
Fermium (actinide)
Mendelevium (actinide)
Nobelium (actinide)
Lawrencium (actinide)
Rutherfordium (transeetion metal)
Dubnium (transeetion metal)
Seaborgium (transeetion metal)
Bohrium (transeetion metal)
Hassium (transeetion metal)
Meitnerium (unkent chemical properties)
Darmstadtium (unkent chemical properties)
Roentgenium (unkent chemical properties)
Copernicium (transeetion metal)
Ununtrium (unkent chemical properties)
Flerovium (post-transeetion metal)
Ununpentium (unkent chemical properties)
Livermorium (unkent chemical properties)
Ununseptium (unkent chemical properties)
Ununoctium (unkent chemical properties)
-

F

Cl
oxygenfluorineneon
Atomic nummer (Z) 9
Group, block group 17 (halogens), p-block
Period period 2
Element category   diatomic nonmetal
Staundart atomic wicht (±) (Ar) 18.998403163(6)
Electron configuration [He] 2s2 2p5[1]
per shell
2, 7
Pheesical properties
Phase gas
Meltin pynt 53.48 K ​(−219.67 °C, ​−363.41[2] °F)
Bylin pynt 85.03 K ​(−188.11 °C, ​−306.60[2] °F)
Density at stp (0 °C and 101.325 kPa) 1.696[3] g/L
when liquid, at b.p. 1.505[4] g/cm3
Threeple pynt 53.48 K, ​90[2] kPa
Creetical pynt 144.41 K, 5.1724[2] MPa
Heat o vapourisation 6.51[3] kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity (Cp) (21.1 °C) 31[4] J·mol−1·K−1
(Cv) (21.1 °C) 23[4] J/(mol·K)
vapour pressur
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 38 44 50 58 69 85
Atomic properties
Oxidation states −1 ​oxidizes oxygen
Electronegativity Pauling scale: 3.98[1]
Ionisation energies
(mair)
Covalent radius 64[5] pm
Van der Waals radius 135[6] pm
Miscellanea
Creestal structur base-centred monoclinic
Monoclinic base-centered crystal structur for fluorine

alpha state (low-temperature)[7]
Thermal conductivity 0.02591[8] W/(m·K)
Magnetic orderin diamagnetic, −1.2×10−4 (SI)[9][10]
CAS Nummer 7782-41-4[1]
History
Namin efter the mineral fluorite, itsel named efter Latin fluo (taur pirr, in smeltin)
Diskivery André-Marie Ampère (1810)
First isolation Henri Moissan[1] (Juin 26, 1886)
Named bi Humphry Davy
Maist stable isotopes o fluorine
iso NA hauf-life DM DE (MeV) DP
18F trace 109.77 min β+ (96.9%) 0.634 18O
ε (3.1%) 1.656 18O
19F 100% 19F is stable wi 10 neutrons
reference[11]
· references

Fluorine is a chemical element wi seembol F an atomic nummer 9. It is the lichtest halogen an exists as a heichly toxic pale yellae diatomic gas at staundary condeetions. As the maist electronegative element, it is extremely reactive: awmaist aw ither elements, includin some noble gases, form compoonds wi fluorine.

Amang the elements, fluorine ranks 24t in universal abundance an 13t in terrestrial abundance. Fluorite, the primar meeneral soorce o fluorine which gae the element its name, wis first descrived in 1529; as it wis addit tae metal ures tae lawer thair meltin pynts for smeltin, the Laitin verb fluo meanin "flowe" gae the mineral its name. Proponed as an element in 1810, fluorine pruived difficult an dangerous tae separate frae its compoonds, an several early experimenters dee'd or susteened injuries frae thair attempts. Anerly in 1886 did French chemist Henri Moissan isolate elemental fluorine uisin law-temperatur electrolysis, a process still employed for modren production. Industrial production o fluorine gas for uranium enrichment, its lairgest application, began in the Manhattan Project in Warld War II.

Awin tae the expense o refinin pure fluorine, maist commercial applications uise fluorine compoonds, wi aboot hauf o mined fluorite uised in steelmakkin. The rest o the fluorite is convertit intae corrosive hydrogen fluoride en route tae various organic fluorides, or intae cryolite which plays a key role in aluminium refinin. Organic fluorides hae very heich chemical an thermal stability; thair major uises are as refrigerants, electrical insulation an cuikware, the last as PTFE (Teflon). Pharmaceuticals sic as atorvastatin an fluoxetine an aa contain fluorine, an the fluoride ion inhibits dental cavities, an sae finds uise in toothpaste an watter fluoridation. Global fluorochemical sales amount tae mair nor US$15 billion a year.

Fluorocarbon gases are generally greenhoose gases wi global-wairmin potentials 100 tae 20,000 times that o carbon dioxide. Organofluorine compoonds persist in the environment due tae the strenth o the carbon–fluorine bond. Fluorine haes na kent metabolic role in mammals; a few plants synthesize organofluorine pushions that deter yerbivores.

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 Aigueperse et al. 2005, "Fluorine", p. 1.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 Haynes, William M., ed. (2011). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (92nt ed.). CRC Press. p. 4.121. ISBN 1439855110. 
  3. 3.0 3.1 Aigueperse et al. 2005, "Fluorine", p. 2.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 Compressed Gas Association (1999). Handbook of compressed gases. Springer. p. 365. ISBN 9780412782305. 
  5. Dean 1999, p. 4.35.
  6. Kim, Sung-Hoon (2006). Functional dyes. Elsevier. p. 257. ISBN 9780444521767. 
  7. Young, David A. (1975). Phase Diagrams of the Elements (Report). Springer. p. 10. http://www.osti.gov/bridge/servlets/purl/4010212-0BbwUC/4010212.pdfaccess. Retrieved 10 June 2011. 
  8. Yaws & Braker 2001, p. 385.
  9. Mackay, Mackay & Henderson 2002, p. 72.
  10. Cheng, H.; Fowler, D. E.; Henderson, P. B.; Hobbs, J. P.; Pascaloni, M. R. (1999). "On the magnetic susceptibility of fluorine". Journal of Physical Chemistry A. 103 (15): 2861–2866. doi:10.1021/jp9844720. 
  11. Chiste, V.; Be, M. M. (2006). "F-18" (PDF). Table de radionucleides. Laboratoire National Henri Becquerel. Retrieved 15 Juin 2011.