Fluorine

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Fluorine,  9F
Smaa sample o pale yellae liquid fluorine condensed in liquid nitrogen
Liquid fluorine at cryogenic temperaturs
General properties
Name, seembol fluorine, F
Appearance gas: vera fauch yellae
liquid: bricht yellae
solid: skyre (beta), opaque (alpha)
Pronunciation /fluːrin/ or /ˈfloːrin/
Fluorine in the periodic cairt
Hydrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Helium (noble gas)
Lithium (alkali metal)
Beryllium (alkaline yird metal)
Boron (metalloid)
Carbon (polyatomic nonmetal)
Nitrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Oxygen (diatomic nonmetal)
Fluorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Neon (noble gas)
Sodium (alkali metal)
Magnesium (alkaline yird metal)
Aluminium (post-transeetion metal)
Silicon (metalloid)
Phosphorus (polyatomic nonmetal)
Sulfur (polyatomic nonmetal)
Chlorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Argon (noble gas)
Potassium (alkali metal)
Calcium (alkaline yird metal)
Scandium (transeetion metal)
Titanium (transeetion metal)
Vanadium (transeetion metal)
Chromium (transeetion metal)
Manganese (transeetion metal)
Iron (transeetion metal)
Cobalt (transeetion metal)
Nickel (transeetion metal)
Copper (transeetion metal)
Zinc (transeetion metal)
Gallium (post-transeetion metal)
Germanium (metalloid)
Arsenic (metalloid)
Selenium (polyatomic nonmetal)
Bromine (diatomic nonmetal)
Krypton (noble gas)
Rubidium (alkali metal)
Strontium (alkaline yird metal)
Yttrium (transeetion metal)
Zirconium (transeetion metal)
Niobium (transeetion metal)
Molybdenum (transeetion metal)
Technetium (transeetion metal)
Ruthenium (transeetion metal)
Rhodium (transeetion metal)
Palladium (transeetion metal)
Silver (transeetion metal)
Cadmium (transeetion metal)
Indium (post-transeetion metal)
Tin (post-transeetion metal)
Antimony (metalloid)
Tellurium (metalloid)
Iodine (diatomic nonmetal)
Xenon (noble gas)
Caesium (alkali metal)
Barium (alkaline yird metal)
Lanthanum (lanthanide)
Cerium (lanthanide)
Praseodymium (lanthanide)
Neodymium (lanthanide)
Promethium (lanthanide)
Samarium (lanthanide)
Europium (lanthanide)
Gadolinium (lanthanide)
Terbium (lanthanide)
Dysprosium (lanthanide)
Holmium (lanthanide)
Erbium (lanthanide)
Thulium (lanthanide)
Ytterbium (lanthanide)
Lutetium (lanthanide)
Hafnium (transeetion metal)
Tantalum (transeetion metal)
Tungsten (transeetion metal)
Rhenium (transeetion metal)
Osmium (transeetion metal)
Iridium (transeetion metal)
Platinum (transeetion metal)
Gold (transeetion metal)
Mercury (transeetion metal)
Thallium (post-transeetion metal)
Lead (post-transeetion metal)
Bismuth (post-transeetion metal)
Polonium (post-transeetion metal)
Astatine (metalloid)
Radon (noble gas)
Francium (alkali metal)
Radium (alkaline yird metal)
Actinium (actinide)
Thorium (actinide)
Protactinium (actinide)
Uranium (actinide)
Neptunium (actinide)
Plutonium (actinide)
Americium (actinide)
Curium (actinide)
Berkelium (actinide)
Californium (actinide)
Einsteinium (actinide)
Fermium (actinide)
Mendelevium (actinide)
Nobelium (actinide)
Lawrencium (actinide)
Rutherfordium (transeetion metal)
Dubnium (transeetion metal)
Seaborgium (transeetion metal)
Bohrium (transeetion metal)
Hassium (transeetion metal)
Meitnerium (unkent chemical properties)
Darmstadtium (unkent chemical properties)
Roentgenium (unkent chemical properties)
Copernicium (transeetion metal)
Ununtrium (unkent chemical properties)
Flerovium (post-transeetion metal)
Ununpentium (unkent chemical properties)
Livermorium (unkent chemical properties)
Ununseptium (unkent chemical properties)
Ununoctium (unkent chemical properties)
-

F

Cl
oxygenfluorineneon
Atomic nummer (Z) 9
Group, block group 17 (halogens), p-block
Period period 2
Element category   diatomic nonmetal
Staundart atomic wicht (±) (Ar) 18.998403163(6)
Electron configuration [He] 2s2 2p5[1]
per shell
2, 7
Pheesical properties
Phase gas
Meltin pynt 53.48 K ​(−219.67 °C, ​−363.41[2] °F)
Boilin pynt 85.03 K ​(−188.11 °C, ​−306.60[2] °F)
Density at stp (0 °C and 101.325 kPa) 1.696[3] g/L
when liquid, at b.p. 1.505[4] g/cm3
Triple pynt 53.48 K, ​90[2] kPa
Creetical pynt 144.41 K, 5.1724[2] MPa
Heat o 6.51[3] kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity (Cp) (21.1 °C) 31[4] J·mol−1·K−1
(Cv) (21.1 °C) 23[4] J/(mol·K)
 pressur
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 38 44 50 58 69 85
Atomic properties
Oxidation states −1 ​oxidizes oxygen
Electronegativity Pauling scale: 3.98[1]
energies
(more)
Covalent radius 64[5] pm
Van der Waals radius 135[6] pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structur base-centered monoclinic
Monoclinic base-centered crystal structur for fluorine

alpha state (low-temperature)[7]
Thermal conductivity 0.02591[8] W/(m·K)
Magnetic orderin diamagnetic, −1.2×10−4 (SI)[9][10]
CAS Nummer 7782-41-4[1]
History
Namin efter the mineral fluorite, itsel named efter Latin fluo (taur pirr, in smeltin)
Discovery André-Marie Ampère (1810)
First isolation Henri Moissan[1] (Juin 26, 1886)
Named bi Humphry Davy
Most stable isotopes of fluorine
iso NA hauf-life DM DE (MeV) DP
18F trace 109.77 min β+ (96.9%) 0.634 18O
ε (3.1%) 1.656 18O
19F 100% 19F is stable wi 10 neutrons
reference[11]
· references

Fluorine is the chemical element wi seembol F an atomic nummer 9. At ruim temperatur, it is a fauch yellae gas componed o diatomic molecules, F
2
. Fluorine is the lichtest halogen an the maist electronegative element. It requires great care in haundlin as it is sevendible reactive an pushionous.

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 Aigueperse et al. 2005, "Fluorine", p. 1.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 Haynes, William M., ed. (2011). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (92nd ed.). CRC Press. p. 4.121. ISBN 1439855110. 
  3. 3.0 3.1 Aigueperse et al. 2005, "Fluorine", p. 2.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 Compressed Gas Association (1999). Handbook of compressed gases. Springer. p. 365. ISBN 9780412782305. 
  5. Dean 1999, p. 4.35.
  6. Kim, Sung-Hoon (2006). Functional dyes. Elsevier. p. 257. ISBN 9780444521767. 
  7. Young, David A. (1975). Phase Diagrams of the Elements (Report). Springer. p. 10. http://www.osti.gov/bridge/servlets/purl/4010212-0BbwUC/4010212.pdfaccess. Retrieved 10 June 2011. 
  8. Yaws & Braker 2001, p. 385.
  9. Mackay, Mackay & Henderson 2002, p. 72.
  10. Cheng, H.; Fowler, D. E.; Henderson, P. B.; Hobbs, J. P.; Pascaloni, M. R. (1999). "On the magnetic susceptibility of fluorine". Journal of Physical Chemistry A 103 (15): 2861–2866. doi:10.1021/jp9844720. 
  11. Chiste, V.; Be, M. M. (2006). "F-18" (PDF). Table de radionucleides. Laboratoire National Henri Becquerel. Retrieved 15 June 2011.