Fluorine

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Fluorine,  9F
Smaa sample o pale yellae liquid fluorine condensed in liquid nitrogen
Liquid fluorine at cryogenic temperaturs
General properties
Name, seembol fluorine, F
Pronunciation /ˈflʊərn/ FLUU-reen, /ˈflʊərɪn/, /ˈflɔərn/
Appearance gas: very pale yellae
liquid: bricht yellae
solid: transparent (beta), opaque (alpha)
Fluorine in the periodic cairt
Hydrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Helium (noble gas)
Lithium (alkali metal)
Beryllium (alkaline yird metal)
Boron (metalloid)
Carbon (polyatomic nonmetal)
Nitrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Oxygen (diatomic nonmetal)
Fluorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Neon (noble gas)
Sodium (alkali metal)
Magnesium (alkaline yird metal)
Aluminium (post-transeetion metal)
Silicon (metalloid)
Phosphorus (polyatomic nonmetal)
Sulfur (polyatomic nonmetal)
Chlorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Argon (noble gas)
Potassium (alkali metal)
Calcium (alkaline yird metal)
Scandium (transeetion metal)
Titanium (transeetion metal)
Vanadium (transeetion metal)
Chromium (transeetion metal)
Manganese (transeetion metal)
Iron (transeetion metal)
Cobalt (transeetion metal)
Nickel (transeetion metal)
Copper (transeetion metal)
Zinc (transeetion metal)
Gallium (post-transeetion metal)
Germanium (metalloid)
Arsenic (metalloid)
Selenium (polyatomic nonmetal)
Bromine (diatomic nonmetal)
Krypton (noble gas)
Rubidium (alkali metal)
Strontium (alkaline yird metal)
Yttrium (transeetion metal)
Zirconium (transeetion metal)
Niobium (transeetion metal)
Molybdenum (transeetion metal)
Technetium (transeetion metal)
Ruthenium (transeetion metal)
Rhodium (transeetion metal)
Palladium (transeetion metal)
Silver (transeetion metal)
Cadmium (transeetion metal)
Indium (post-transeetion metal)
Tin (post-transeetion metal)
Antimony (metalloid)
Tellurium (metalloid)
Iodine (diatomic nonmetal)
Xenon (noble gas)
Caesium (alkali metal)
Barium (alkaline yird metal)
Lanthanum (lanthanide)
Cerium (lanthanide)
Praseodymium (lanthanide)
Neodymium (lanthanide)
Promethium (lanthanide)
Samarium (lanthanide)
Europium (lanthanide)
Gadolinium (lanthanide)
Terbium (lanthanide)
Dysprosium (lanthanide)
Holmium (lanthanide)
Erbium (lanthanide)
Thulium (lanthanide)
Ytterbium (lanthanide)
Lutetium (lanthanide)
Hafnium (transeetion metal)
Tantalum (transeetion metal)
Tungsten (transeetion metal)
Rhenium (transeetion metal)
Osmium (transeetion metal)
Iridium (transeetion metal)
Platinum (transeetion metal)
Gold (transeetion metal)
Mercury (transeetion metal)
Thallium (post-transeetion metal)
Lead (post-transeetion metal)
Bismuth (post-transeetion metal)
Polonium (post-transeetion metal)
Astatine (metalloid)
Radon (noble gas)
Francium (alkali metal)
Radium (alkaline yird metal)
Actinium (actinide)
Thorium (actinide)
Protactinium (actinide)
Uranium (actinide)
Neptunium (actinide)
Plutonium (actinide)
Americium (actinide)
Curium (actinide)
Berkelium (actinide)
Californium (actinide)
Einsteinium (actinide)
Fermium (actinide)
Mendelevium (actinide)
Nobelium (actinide)
Lawrencium (actinide)
Rutherfordium (transeetion metal)
Dubnium (transeetion metal)
Seaborgium (transeetion metal)
Bohrium (transeetion metal)
Hassium (transeetion metal)
Meitnerium (unkent chemical properties)
Darmstadtium (unkent chemical properties)
Roentgenium (unkent chemical properties)
Copernicium (transeetion metal)
Ununtrium (unkent chemical properties)
Flerovium (post-transeetion metal)
Ununpentium (unkent chemical properties)
Livermorium (unkent chemical properties)
Ununseptium (unkent chemical properties)
Ununoctium (unkent chemical properties)
-

F

Cl
oxygenfluorineneon
Atomic nummer 9
Staundart atomic wicht (±) (Ar) 18.998403163(6)
Element category   diatomic nonmetal
Group, block group 17 (halogens), p-block
Period period 2
Electron configuration [He] 2s2 2p5[1]
per shell
2, 7
Pheesical properties
Phase gas
Meltin pynt 53.48 K ​(−219.67 °C, ​−363.41[2] °F)
Boilin pynt 85.03 K ​(−188.11 °C, ​−306.60[2] °F)
Density at stp (0 °C an 101.325 kPa) 1.696[3] g/L
when liquid, at b.p. 1.505[4] g/cm3
Triple pynt 53.48 K, ​90[2] kPa
Creetical pynt 144.41 K, 5.1724[2] MPa
Heat o 6.51[3] kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity (Cp) (21.1 °C) 31[4] J·mol−1·K−1
(Cv) (21.1 °C) 23[4] J/(mol·K)
 pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 38 44 50 58 69 85
Atomic properties
Oxidation states −1 ​oxidizes oxygen
Electronegativity Pauling scale: 3.98[1]
energies
(mair)
Covalent radius 64[5] pm
Van der Waals radius 135[6] pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structur base-centered monoclinic
Monoclinic base-centered crystal structure for fluorine

alpha state (low-temperature)[7]
Thermal conductivity 0.02591[8] W/(m·K)
Magnetic orderin diamagnetic, −1.2×10−4 (SI)[9][10]
CAS Registry Nummer 7782-41-4[1]
History
Namin efter the mineral fluorite, itself named efter Latin fluo (tar flow, in smeltin)
Discovery André-Marie Ampère (1810)
First isolation Henri Moissan[1] (Juin 26, 1886)
Named by Humphry Davy
Maist stable isotopes
Main article: Isotopes o fluorine
iso NA hauf-life DM DE (MeV) DP
18F trace 109.77 min β+ (96.9%) 0.634 18O
ε (3.1%) 1.656 18O
19F 100% 19F is stable wi 10 neutrons
reference[11]
· references

Fluorine is the chemical element wi seembol F an atomic nummer 9. At ruim temperatur, it is a pale yellae gas componed o diatomic molecules, F
2
. Fluorine is the lichtest halogen an the maist electronegative element. It requires great care in handlin as it is extremely reactive an poisonous.

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 Aigueperse et al. 2005, "Fluorine", p. 1.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 Haynes, William M., ed. (2011). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (92nd ed.). CRC Press. p. 4.121. ISBN 1439855110. 
  3. 3.0 3.1 Aigueperse et al. 2005, "Fluorine", p. 2.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 Compressed Gas Association (1999). Handbook of compressed gases. Springer. p. 365. ISBN 9780412782305. 
  5. Dean 1999, p. 4.35.
  6. Kim, Sung-Hoon (2006). Functional dyes. Elsevier. p. 257. ISBN 9780444521767. 
  7. Young, David A. (1975). Phase Diagrams of the Elements (Report). Springer. p. 10. http://www.osti.gov/bridge/servlets/purl/4010212-0BbwUC/4010212.pdfaccess. Retrieved 10 June 2011. 
  8. Yaws & Braker 2001, p. 385.
  9. Mackay, Mackay & Henderson 2002, p. 72.
  10. Cheng, H.; Fowler, D. E.; Henderson, P. B.; Hobbs, J. P.; Pascaloni, M. R. (1999). "On the magnetic susceptibility of fluorine". Journal of Physical Chemistry A 103 (15): 2861–2866. doi:10.1021/jp9844720. 
  11. Chiste, V.; Be, M. M. (2006). "F-18". Table de radionucleides. Laboratoire National Henri Becquerel. Retrieved 15 June 2011.