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Calcium,  20Ca
Calcium unter Argon Schutzgasatmosphäre.jpg
Calcium Spectrum.png
Spectral lines o calcium
General properties
Name, seembol calcium, Ca
Appearance dull gray, siller
Pronunciation /ˈkælsiəm/ KAL-see-əm
Calcium in the periodic cairt
Hydrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Helium (noble gas)
Lithium (alkali metal)
Beryllium (alkaline yird metal)
Boron (metalloid)
Carbon (polyatomic nonmetal)
Nitrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Oxygen (diatomic nonmetal)
Fluorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Neon (noble gas)
Sodium (alkali metal)
Magnesium (alkaline yird metal)
Aluminium (post-transeetion metal)
Silicon (metalloid)
Phosphorus (polyatomic nonmetal)
Sulfur (polyatomic nonmetal)
Chlorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Argon (noble gas)
Potassium (alkali metal)
Calcium (alkaline yird metal)
Scandium (transeetion metal)
Titanium (transeetion metal)
Vanadium (transeetion metal)
Chromium (transeetion metal)
Manganese (transeetion metal)
Airn (transeetion metal)
Cobalt (transeetion metal)
Nickel (transeetion metal)
Capper (transeetion metal)
Zinc (transeetion metal)
Gallium (post-transeetion metal)
Germanium (metalloid)
Arsenic (metalloid)
Selenium (polyatomic nonmetal)
Bromine (diatomic nonmetal)
Krypton (noble gas)
Rubidium (alkali metal)
Strontium (alkaline yird metal)
Yttrium (transeetion metal)
Zirconium (transeetion metal)
Niobium (transeetion metal)
Molybdenum (transeetion metal)
Technetium (transeetion metal)
Ruthenium (transeetion metal)
Rhodium (transeetion metal)
Palladium (transeetion metal)
Siller (transeetion metal)
Cadmium (transeetion metal)
Indium (post-transeetion metal)
Tin (post-transeetion metal)
Antimony (metalloid)
Tellurium (metalloid)
Iodine (diatomic nonmetal)
Xenon (noble gas)
Caesium (alkali metal)
Barium (alkaline yird metal)
Lanthanum (lanthanide)
Cerium (lanthanide)
Praseodymium (lanthanide)
Neodymium (lanthanide)
Promethium (lanthanide)
Samarium (lanthanide)
Europium (lanthanide)
Gadolinium (lanthanide)
Terbium (lanthanide)
Dysprosium (lanthanide)
Holmium (lanthanide)
Erbium (lanthanide)
Thulium (lanthanide)
Ytterbium (lanthanide)
Lutetium (lanthanide)
Hafnium (transeetion metal)
Tantalum (transeetion metal)
Tungsten (transeetion metal)
Rhenium (transeetion metal)
Osmium (transeetion metal)
Iridium (transeetion metal)
Platinum (transeetion metal)
Gold (transeetion metal)
Mercur (transeetion metal)
Thallium (post-transeetion metal)
Leid (post-transeetion metal)
Bismuth (post-transeetion metal)
Polonium (post-transeetion metal)
Astatine (metalloid)
Radon (noble gas)
Francium (alkali metal)
Radium (alkaline yird metal)
Actinium (actinide)
Thorium (actinide)
Protactinium (actinide)
Uranium (actinide)
Neptunium (actinide)
Plutonium (actinide)
Americium (actinide)
Curium (actinide)
Berkelium (actinide)
Californium (actinide)
Einsteinium (actinide)
Fermium (actinide)
Mendelevium (actinide)
Nobelium (actinide)
Lawrencium (actinide)
Rutherfordium (transeetion metal)
Dubnium (transeetion metal)
Seaborgium (transeetion metal)
Bohrium (transeetion metal)
Hassium (transeetion metal)
Meitnerium (unkent chemical properties)
Darmstadtium (unkent chemical properties)
Roentgenium (unkent chemical properties)
Copernicium (transeetion metal)
Ununtrium (unkent chemical properties)
Flerovium (post-transeetion metal)
Ununpentium (unkent chemical properties)
Livermorium (unkent chemical properties)
Ununseptium (unkent chemical properties)
Ununoctium (unkent chemical properties)


Atomic nummer (Z) 20
Group, block group 2 (alkaline yird metals), s-block
Period period 4
Element category   alkaline yird metal
Staundart atomic wicht (±) (Ar) 40.078(4)
Electron configuration [Ar] 4s2
per shell
2, 8, 8, 2
Pheesical properties
Phase solid
Meltin pynt 1115 K ​(842 °C, ​1548 °F)
Bylin pynt 1757 K ​(1484 °C, ​2703 °F)
Density near r.t. 1.55 g/cm3
when liquid, at m.p. 1.378 g/cm3
Heat o fusion 8.54 kJ/mol
Heat o vapourisation 154.7 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity 25.929 J/(mol·K)
vapour pressur
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 864 956 1071 1227 1443 1755
Atomic properties
Oxidation states +2, +1[1] ​strongly basic oxide
Electronegativity Pauling scale: 1.00
Ionisation energies
Atomic radius empirical: 197 pm
Covalent radius 176±10 pm
Van der Waals radius 231 pm
Crystal structur face-centered cubic (fcc)
Face-centered cubic crystal structur for calcium
Speed o soond thin rod 3810 m/s (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansion 22.3 µm/(m·K) (at 25 °C)
Thermal conductivity 201 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity 33.6 n Ω·m (at 20 °C)
Magnetic orderin diamagnetic
Young's modulus 20 GPa
Shear modulus 7.4 GPa
Bulk modulus 17 GPa
Poisson ratio 0.31
Mohs haurdness 1.75
Brinell haurdness 167 MPa
CAS Nummer 7440-70-2
Discovery Humphry Davy (1808)
First isolation Humphry Davy (1808)
Maist stable isotopes o calcium
iso NA hauf-life DM DE (MeV) DP
40Ca 96.941% >5.9×1021 y β+β+ 0.194 40Ar
41Ca trace 1.03×105 y ε - 41K
42Ca 0.647% 42Ca is stable wi 22 neutrons
43Ca 0.135% 43Ca is stable wi 23 neutrons
44Ca 2.086% 44Ca is stable wi 24 neutrons
45Ca syn 162.7 d β 0.258 45Sc
46Ca 0.004% >2.8×1015 y ββ 0.988 46Ti
47Ca syn 4.536 d β 0.694, 1.99 47Sc
γ 1.297 -
48Ca 0.187% 4.3×1019 y ββ 4.274 48Ti
(nae observed)
0.0058 48Sc
· references

Calcium is the chemical element wi seembol Ca an atomic nummer 20. Calcium is a saft gray alkaline yird metal, an is the fift-maist-abundant element bi mass in the Yird's crust. Calcium is the fift-maist-abundant dissolved ion in seawatter bi baith molarity an mass, efter sodium, chloride, magnesium, an sulphate.[2]

Calcium is essential for livin organisms, in parteecular in cell physiology, whaur muivement o the calcium ion Ca2+ intae an oot o the cytoplasm functions as a signal for mony cellular processes. As a major material uised in mineralisation o bane, teeth an shells, calcium is the maist abundant metal bi mass in mony ainimals.

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Krieck, Sven; Görls, Helmar; Westerhausen, Matthias (2010). "Mechanistic Elucidation of the Formation of the Inverse Ca(I) Sandwich Complex [(thf)3Ca(μ-C6H3-1,3,5-Ph3)Ca(thf)3] and Stability of Aryl-Substituted Phenylcalcium Complexes". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 132 (35): 100818110534020. PMID 20718434. doi:10.1021/ja105534w. 
  2. Dickson, A. G. and Goyet, C. (1994). "5". Handbook of method for the analysis of the various parameters of the carbon dioxide system in sea water, version 2 (PDF). ORNL/CDIAC-74. 

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