Bismuth

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Bismuth,  83Bi
Bismuth crystals and 1cm3 cube.jpg
General properties
Name, seembol bismuth, Bi
Pronunciation /ˈbɪzməθ/ BIZ-məth
Appearance lustrous siller
Bismuth in the periodic cairt
Hydrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Helium (noble gas)
Lithium (alkali metal)
Beryllium (alkaline yird metal)
Boron (metalloid)
Carbon (polyatomic nonmetal)
Nitrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Oxygen (diatomic nonmetal)
Fluorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Neon (noble gas)
Sodium (alkali metal)
Magnesium (alkaline yird metal)
Aluminium (post-transeetion metal)
Silicon (metalloid)
Phosphorus (polyatomic nonmetal)
Sulfur (polyatomic nonmetal)
Chlorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Argon (noble gas)
Potassium (alkali metal)
Calcium (alkaline yird metal)
Scandium (transeetion metal)
Titanium (transeetion metal)
Vanadium (transeetion metal)
Chromium (transeetion metal)
Manganese (transeetion metal)
Iron (transeetion metal)
Cobalt (transeetion metal)
Nickel (transeetion metal)
Copper (transeetion metal)
Zinc (transeetion metal)
Gallium (post-transeetion metal)
Germanium (metalloid)
Arsenic (metalloid)
Selenium (polyatomic nonmetal)
Bromine (diatomic nonmetal)
Krypton (noble gas)
Rubidium (alkali metal)
Strontium (alkaline yird metal)
Yttrium (transeetion metal)
Zirconium (transeetion metal)
Niobium (transeetion metal)
Molybdenum (transeetion metal)
Technetium (transeetion metal)
Ruthenium (transeetion metal)
Rhodium (transeetion metal)
Palladium (transeetion metal)
Silver (transeetion metal)
Cadmium (transeetion metal)
Indium (post-transeetion metal)
Tin (post-transeetion metal)
Antimony (metalloid)
Tellurium (metalloid)
Iodine (diatomic nonmetal)
Xenon (noble gas)
Caesium (alkali metal)
Barium (alkaline yird metal)
Lanthanum (lanthanide)
Cerium (lanthanide)
Praseodymium (lanthanide)
Neodymium (lanthanide)
Promethium (lanthanide)
Samarium (lanthanide)
Europium (lanthanide)
Gadolinium (lanthanide)
Terbium (lanthanide)
Dysprosium (lanthanide)
Holmium (lanthanide)
Erbium (lanthanide)
Thulium (lanthanide)
Ytterbium (lanthanide)
Lutetium (lanthanide)
Hafnium (transeetion metal)
Tantalum (transeetion metal)
Tungsten (transeetion metal)
Rhenium (transeetion metal)
Osmium (transeetion metal)
Iridium (transeetion metal)
Platinum (transeetion metal)
Gold (transeetion metal)
Mercury (transeetion metal)
Thallium (post-transeetion metal)
Lead (post-transeetion metal)
Bismuth (post-transeetion metal)
Polonium (post-transeetion metal)
Astatine (metalloid)
Radon (noble gas)
Francium (alkali metal)
Radium (alkaline yird metal)
Actinium (actinide)
Thorium (actinide)
Protactinium (actinide)
Uranium (actinide)
Neptunium (actinide)
Plutonium (actinide)
Americium (actinide)
Curium (actinide)
Berkelium (actinide)
Californium (actinide)
Einsteinium (actinide)
Fermium (actinide)
Mendelevium (actinide)
Nobelium (actinide)
Lawrencium (actinide)
Rutherfordium (transeetion metal)
Dubnium (transeetion metal)
Seaborgium (transeetion metal)
Bohrium (transeetion metal)
Hassium (transeetion metal)
Meitnerium (unkent chemical properties)
Darmstadtium (unkent chemical properties)
Roentgenium (unkent chemical properties)
Copernicium (transeetion metal)
Ununtrium (unkent chemical properties)
Flerovium (post-transeetion metal)
Ununpentium (unkent chemical properties)
Livermorium (unkent chemical properties)
Ununseptium (unkent chemical properties)
Ununoctium (unkent chemical properties)
Sb

Bi

Uup
leadbismuthpolonium
Atomic nummer 83
Staundart atomic wicht (±) (Ar) 208.98040(1)
Element category   puir metal
Group, block group 15 (pnictogens), p-block
Period period 6
Electron configuration [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p3
per shell
2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 5
Pheesical properties
Phase solid
Meltin pynt 544.7 K ​(271.5 °C, ​520.7 °F)
Boilin pynt 1837 K ​(1564 °C, ​2847 °F)
Density near r.t. 9.78 g/cm3
when liquid, at m.p. 10.05 g/cm3
Heat o fusion 11.30 kJ/mol
Heat o 151 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity 25.52 J/(mol·K)
 pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 941 1041 1165 1325 1538 1835
Atomic properties
Oxidation states 5, 4, 3, 2, 1 ​mildly acidic oxide
Electronegativity Pauling scale: 2.02
energies
(mair)
Atomic radius empirical: 156 pm
Covalent radius 148±4 pm
Van der Waals radius 207 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structur rhombohedral[1]
Rhombohedral crystal structure for bismuth
Speed o soond thin rod 1790 m/s (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansion 13.4 µm/(m·K) (at 25 °C)
Thermal conductivity 7.97 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity 1.29 µ Ω·m (at 20 °C)
Magnetic orderin diamagnetic
Young's modulus 32 GPa
Shear modulus 12 GPa
Bulk modulus 31 GPa
Poisson ratio 0.33
Mohs haurdness 2.25
Brinell haurdness 94.2 MPa
CAS Registry Nummer 7440-69-9
History
Discovery Claude François Geoffroy (1753)
Maist stable isotopes
Main article: Isotopes o bismuth
iso NA hauf-life DM DE (MeV) DP
207Bi syn 31.55 y β+ 2.399 207Pb
208Bi syn 3.68×105 y β+ 2.880 208Pb
209Bi 100% 1.9×1019 y α 3.137 205Tl
210Bi trace 5.012 d β 1.426 210Po
α 5.982 206Tl
210mBi syn 3.04×106 y IT 0.271 210Bi
α 6.253 206Tl
· references

Bismuth is a chemical element wi seembol Bi an atomic nummer 83. Bismuth, a pentavalent puir metal, chemically resembles arsenic an antimony. Elemental bismuth mey occur naiturally, altho its sulfide an oxide furm important commercial ores. The free element is 86% as dense as leid. It is a brittle metal wi a sillery white colour when freshly produced, but is eften seen in air wi a pink tinge owin tae surface oxidation. Bismuth is the maist naiturally diamagnetic element an haes ane o the lawest values o thermal conductivity amang metals.

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Cucka, P.; Barrett, C. S. (1962). "The crystal structure of Bi and of solid solutions of Pb, Sn, Sb and Te in Bi". Acta Crystallographica 15 (9): 865. doi:10.1107/S0365110X62002297.