Bismuth

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Bismuth,  83Bi
Bismuth crystals and 1cm3 cube.jpg
General properties
Appearance lustrous siller
Staundart atomic wecht (Ar, staundart) 208.98040(1)
Bismuth in the periodic cairt
Hydrogen Helium
Lithium Beryllium Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine Neon
Sodium Magnesium Aluminium Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon
Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Airn Cobalt Nickel Capper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton
Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium Siller (element) Cadmium Indium Tin Antimony Tellurium Iodine Xenon
Caesium Barium Lanthanum Cerium Praseodymium Neodymium Promethium Samarium Europium Gadolinium Terbium Dysprosium Holmium Erbium Thulium Ytterbium Lutetium Hafnium Tantalum Tungsten Rhenium Osmium Iridium Platinum Gold Mercur (element) Thallium Leid (element) Bismuth Polonium Astatine Radon
Francium Radium Actinium Thorium Protactinium Uranium Neptunium Plutonium Americium Curium Berkelium Californium Einsteinium Fermium Mendelevium Nobelium Lawrencium Rutherfordium Dubnium Seaborgium Bohrium Hassium Meitnerium Darmstadtium Roentgenium Copernicium Ununtrium Flerovium Ununpentium Livermorium Ununseptium Ununoctium
Sb

Bi

Uup
leadbismuthpolonium
Atomic nummer (Z) 83
Group group 15 (pnictogens)
Period period 6
Element category   puir metal
Block p-block
Electron confeeguration [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p3
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 5
Pheesical properties
Phase (at STP) solit
Meltin pynt 544.7 K ​(271.5 °C, ​520.7 °F)
Bylin pynt 1837 K ​(1564 °C, ​2847 °F)
Density (near r.t.) 9.78 g/cm3
when liquid (at m.p.) 10.05 g/cm3
Heat o fusion 11.30 kJ/mol
Heat o vapourisation 151 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity 25.52 J/(mol·K)
Vapour pressur
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 941 1041 1165 1325 1538 1835
Atomic properties
Oxidation states 5, 4, 3, 2, 1 ​mildly acidic oxide
Electronegativity Pauling scale: 2.02
Ionisation energies
Atomic radius empirical: 156 pm
Covalent radius 148±4 pm
Van der Waals radius 207 pm
Color lines in a spectral range
Miscellanea
Crestal structur rhombohedral[1]
Rhombohedral creestal structur for bismuth
Speed o soond thin rod 1790 m/s (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansion 13.4 µm/(m·K) (at 25 °C)
Thermal conductivity 7.97 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity 1.29 µ Ω·m (at 20 °C)
Magnetic orderin diamagnetic
Young's modulus 32 GPa
Shear modulus 12 GPa
Bouk modulus 31 GPa
Poisson ratio 0.33
Mohs haurdness 2.25
Brinell haurdness 94.2 MPa
CAS Nummer 7440-69-9
History
Diskivery Claude François Geoffroy (1753)
Main isotopes o bismuth
Iso­tope Abun­dance Hauf-life (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct
207Bi syn 31.55 y β+ 207Pb
208Bi syn 3.68×105 y β+ 208Pb
209Bi 100% 1.9×1019 y α 205Tl
210Bi trace 5.012 d β 1.426 210Po
α 5.982 206Tl
210mBi syn 3.04×106 y IT 0.271 210Bi
α 6.253 206Tl
| references | in Wikidata

Bismuth is a chemical element wi seembol Bi an atomic nummer 83. Bismuth, a pentavalent puir metal, chemically resembles arsenic an antimony. Elemental bismuth mey occur naiturally, tho its sulfide an oxide furm important commercial ores. The free element is 86% sae dense as leid. It is a brickle metal wi a siller white colour whan freshly produced, but is aften seen in air wi a pink tinge awin tae surface oxidation. Bismuth is the maist naiturally diamagnetic element an haes ane o the lawest values o thermal conductivity oot o aw metals.

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Cucka, P.; Barrett, C. S. (1962). "The crystal structure of Bi and of solit solutions of Pb, Sn, Sb and Te in Bi". Acta Crystallographica. 15 (9): 865. doi:10.1107/S0365110X62002297.