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General properties
Name, seembol, nummer zinc, Zn, 30
Pronunciation /ˈzɪŋk/ ZINGK
Element category transeetion metal
alternatively considered a post-transeetion metal
Group, period, block 12, 4, d
Staundart atomic wicht 65.38(2)
Electron confeeguration [Ar] 3d10 4s2
2, 8, 18, 2
Electron shells of zinc (2, 8, 18, 2)
Discovery Indian metallurgists (before 1000 BC)
First isolation Andreas Sigismund Marggraf (1746)
Recognized as a unique metal bi Rasaratna Samuccaya (800)
Physical properties
Phase solid
Density (near r.t.) 7.14 g·cm−3
Liquid density at m.p. 6.57 g·cm−3
Meltin pynt 692.68 K, 419.53 °C, 787.15 °F
Boilin pynt 1180 K, 907 °C, 1665 °F
Heat o fusion 7.32 kJ·mol−1
Heat o vaporization 123.6 kJ·mol−1
Molar heat capacity 25.470 J·mol−1·K−1
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 610 670 750 852 990 1179
Atomic properties
Oxidation states +2, +1, 0
(amphoteric oxide)
Electronegativity 1.65 (Pauling scale)
Ionization energies
1st: 906.4 kJ·mol−1
2nt: 1733.3 kJ·mol−1
3rd: 3833 kJ·mol−1
Atomic radius 134 pm
Covalent radius 122±4 pm
Van der Waals radius 139 pm
Crystal structure hexagonal close-packed
Zinc has a hexagonal close packed crystal structure
Magnetic orderin diamagnetic
Electrical resistivity (20 °C) 59.0 nΩ·m
Thermal conductivity 116 W·m−1·K−1
Thermal expansion (25 °C) 30.2 µm·m−1·K−1
Speed o soond (thin rod) (r.t.) (rolled) 3850 m·s−1
Young's modulus 108 GPa
Shear modulus 43 GPa
Bulk modulus 70 GPa
Poisson ratio 0.25
Mohs hairdness 2.5
Brinell hairdness 412 MPa
CAS registry nummer 7440-66-6
Most stable isotopes
Main article: Isotopes o zinc
iso NA hauf-life DM DE (MeV) DP
64Zn 48.6% >2.3×1018 y (β+β+) 1.096 64Ni
65Zn syn 243.8 d ε 1.3519 65Cu
γ 1.1155 -
66Zn 27.9% 66Zn is stable wi 36 neutrons
67Zn 4.1% 67Zn is stable wi 37 neutrons
68Zn 18.8% 68Zn is stable wi 38 neutrons
69Zn syn 56 min β 0.906 69Ga
69mZn syn 13.76 h β 0.906 69Ga
70Zn 0.6% >1.3×1016 y (ββ) 0.998 70Ge
71Zn syn 2.4 min β 2.82 71Ga
71mZn syn 3.97 d β 2.82 71Ga
72Zn syn 46.5 h β 0.458 72Ga
Decay modes in parentheses are predictit, but hae nae yet been observed
· r

Zinc, in commerce an aa spelter, is a metallic chemical element; it haes the seembol Zn an atomic nummer 30. It is the first element o group 12 o the periodic table. Zinc is, in some respects, chemically seemilar tae magnesium, acause its ion is o similar size an its anly common oxidation state is +2. Zinc is the 24t maist abundant element in the Yird's crust an haes five stable isotopes. The maist common zinc ore is sphalerite (zinc blende), a zinc sulfide mineral. The lairgest mineable amoonts are foond in Australie, Asie, an the Unitit States. Zinc production includes froth flotation o the ore, roastin, an final extraction uisin electricity (electrowinnin).