Zinc

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Zinc,  30Zn
Zinc fragment sublimed and 1cm3 cube.jpg
General properties
Name, seembol zinc, Zn
Appearance siller-gray
Pronunciation /ˈzɪŋk/ ZINGK
Zinc in the periodic cairt
Hydrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Helium (noble gas)
Lithium (alkali metal)
Beryllium (alkaline yird metal)
Boron (metalloid)
Carbon (polyatomic nonmetal)
Nitrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Oxygen (diatomic nonmetal)
Fluorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Neon (noble gas)
Sodium (alkali metal)
Magnesium (alkaline yird metal)
Aluminium (post-transeetion metal)
Silicon (metalloid)
Phosphorus (polyatomic nonmetal)
Sulfur (polyatomic nonmetal)
Chlorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Argon (noble gas)
Potassium (alkali metal)
Calcium (alkaline yird metal)
Scandium (transeetion metal)
Titanium (transeetion metal)
Vanadium (transeetion metal)
Chromium (transeetion metal)
Manganese (transeetion metal)
Airn (transeetion metal)
Cobalt (transeetion metal)
Nickel (transeetion metal)
Capper (transeetion metal)
Zinc (transeetion metal)
Gallium (post-transeetion metal)
Germanium (metalloid)
Arsenic (metalloid)
Selenium (polyatomic nonmetal)
Bromine (diatomic nonmetal)
Krypton (noble gas)
Rubidium (alkali metal)
Strontium (alkaline yird metal)
Yttrium (transeetion metal)
Zirconium (transeetion metal)
Niobium (transeetion metal)
Molybdenum (transeetion metal)
Technetium (transeetion metal)
Ruthenium (transeetion metal)
Rhodium (transeetion metal)
Palladium (transeetion metal)
Siller (transeetion metal)
Cadmium (transeetion metal)
Indium (post-transeetion metal)
Tin (post-transeetion metal)
Antimony (metalloid)
Tellurium (metalloid)
Iodine (diatomic nonmetal)
Xenon (noble gas)
Caesium (alkali metal)
Barium (alkaline yird metal)
Lanthanum (lanthanide)
Cerium (lanthanide)
Praseodymium (lanthanide)
Neodymium (lanthanide)
Promethium (lanthanide)
Samarium (lanthanide)
Europium (lanthanide)
Gadolinium (lanthanide)
Terbium (lanthanide)
Dysprosium (lanthanide)
Holmium (lanthanide)
Erbium (lanthanide)
Thulium (lanthanide)
Ytterbium (lanthanide)
Lutetium (lanthanide)
Hafnium (transeetion metal)
Tantalum (transeetion metal)
Tungsten (transeetion metal)
Rhenium (transeetion metal)
Osmium (transeetion metal)
Iridium (transeetion metal)
Platinum (transeetion metal)
Gold (transeetion metal)
Mercur (transeetion metal)
Thallium (post-transeetion metal)
Leid (post-transeetion metal)
Bismuth (post-transeetion metal)
Polonium (post-transeetion metal)
Astatine (metalloid)
Radon (noble gas)
Francium (alkali metal)
Radium (alkaline yird metal)
Actinium (actinide)
Thorium (actinide)
Protactinium (actinide)
Uranium (actinide)
Neptunium (actinide)
Plutonium (actinide)
Americium (actinide)
Curium (actinide)
Berkelium (actinide)
Californium (actinide)
Einsteinium (actinide)
Fermium (actinide)
Mendelevium (actinide)
Nobelium (actinide)
Lawrencium (actinide)
Rutherfordium (transeetion metal)
Dubnium (transeetion metal)
Seaborgium (transeetion metal)
Bohrium (transeetion metal)
Hassium (transeetion metal)
Meitnerium (unkent chemical properties)
Darmstadtium (unkent chemical properties)
Roentgenium (unkent chemical properties)
Copernicium (transeetion metal)
Ununtrium (unkent chemical properties)
Flerovium (post-transeetion metal)
Ununpentium (unkent chemical properties)
Livermorium (unkent chemical properties)
Ununseptium (unkent chemical properties)
Ununoctium (unkent chemical properties)
-

Zn

Cd
copperzincgallium
Atomic nummer (Z) 30
Group, block group 12, d-block
Period period 4
Element category   transeetion metal, alternatively considered a post-transeetion metal
Staundart atomic wicht (Ar) 65.38(2)
Electron configuration [Ar] 3d10 4s2
per shell
2, 8, 18, 2
Pheesical properties
Phase solid
Meltin pynt 692.68 K ​(419.53 °C, ​787.15 °F)
Bylin pynt 1180 K ​(907 °C, ​1665 °F)
Density near r.t. 7.14 g/cm3
when liquid, at m.p. 6.57 g/cm3
Heat o fusion 7.32 kJ/mol
Heat o vapourisation 123.6 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity 25.470 J/(mol·K)
vapour pressur
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 610 670 750 852 990 1179
Atomic properties
Oxidation states +2, +1, 0amphoteric oxide
Electronegativity Pauling scale: 1.65
Ionisation energies
(mair)
Atomic radius empirical: 134 pm
Covalent radius 122±4 pm
Van der Waals radius 139 pm
Miscellanea
Creestal structur hexagonal close-packed (hcp)
Hexagonal close packed crystal structur for zinc
Speed o soond thin rod (rolled) 3850 m/s (at r.t.)
Thermal expansion 30.2 µm/(m·K) (at 25 °C)
Thermal conductivity 116 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity 59.0 n Ω·m (at 20 °C)
Magnetic orderin diamagnetic
Young's modulus 108 GPa
Shear modulus 43 GPa
Bouk modulus 70 GPa
Poisson ratio 0.25
Mohs haurdness 2.5
Brinell haurdness 412 MPa
CAS Nummer 7440-66-6
History
Diskivery Indian metallurgists (before 1000 BC)
First isolation Andreas Sigismund Marggraf (1746)
Recognized as a unique metal bi Rasaratna Samuccaya (800)
Maist stable isotopes o zinc
iso NA hauf-life DM DE (MeV) DP
64Zn 48.6% >2.3×1018 y (β+β+) 1.096 64Ni
65Zn syn 243.8 d ε 1.3519 65Cu
γ 1.1155 -
66Zn 27.9% 66Zn is stable wi 36 neutrons
67Zn 4.1% 67Zn is stable wi 37 neutrons
68Zn 18.8% 68Zn is stable wi 38 neutrons
69Zn syn 56 min β 0.906 69Ga
69mZn syn 13.76 h β 0.906 69Ga
70Zn 0.6% >1.3×1016 y (ββ) 0.998 70Ge
71Zn syn 2.4 min β 2.82 71Ga
71mZn syn 3.97 d β 2.82 71Ga
72Zn syn 46.5 h β 0.458 72Ga
Decay modes in parentheses are predictit, but hae nae yet been observed
· references

Zinc is a chemical element wi the seembol Zn an atomic nummer 30. It is the first element in group 12 o the periodic table. In some respects zinc is chemically seemilar tae magnesium: baith elements exhibit anly ane normal oxidation state (+2), an the Zn2+ an Mg2+ ions are o seemilar size. Zinc is the 24t maist abundant element in Yird's crust an haes five stable isotopes. The maist common zinc ore is sphalerite (zinc blende), a zinc sulfide mineral. The lairgest workable lodes are in Australie, Asia, an the United States. Zinc is refined bi froth flotation o the ore, roasting, an final extraction uisin electricity (electrowinning).

Bress, an alloy o capper an zinc in various proportions, wis uised as early as the third millennium BC in the Aegean, Iraq, the Unitit Arab Emirates, Kalmykia, Turkmenistan an Georgia, an the seicont millennium BC in West India, Uzbekistan, Iran, Sirie, Iraq, an Israel[1] (Judea[2]).[3] Zinc metal wis nae produced on a lairge scale until the 12t century in India an wis unkent tae Europe until the end o the 16t century. The mines o Rajasthan hae gien definite evidence o zinc production going back tae the 6t century BC.[4] Tae date, the auldest evidence o pure zinc comes frae Zawar, in Rajasthan, as early as the 9t century AD when a distillation process wis employed tae mak pure zinc.[5] Alchemists burned zinc in air tae form what thay cried "philosopher's wool" or "white snow".

The element wis probably named bi the alchemist Paracelsus efter the German wird Zinke (prong, tuith). German chemist Andreas Sigismund Marggraf is credited wi discovering pure metallic zinc in 1746. Wirk bi Luigi Galvani an Alessandro Volta uncovered the electrochemical properties o zinc bi 1800. Corrosion-reseestant zinc plating o iron (het-dip galvanisin) is the major application for zinc. Ither applications are in electrical batteries, smaw non-structural castins, an alloys sic as bress. A variety o zinc compoonds are commonly uised, sic as zinc carbonate an zinc gluconate (as dietary supplements), zinc chloride (in deodorants), zinc pyrithione (anti-dandruff shampoos), zinc sulfide (in luminescent paints), an zinc methyl or zinc diethyl in the organic laboratory.

Zinc is an essential meeneral perceived bi the public the day as bein o "exceptional biologic and public health importance", especially regarding prenatal an postnatal development.[6] Zinc deficiency affects aboot twa billion fowk in the developin warld an is associated wi mony diseases.[7] In childer, deficiency causes growthe retardation, delayed sexual maturation, infection susceptibility, an diarrhea.[6] Enzymes wi a zinc atom in the reactive centre are widespread in biochemistry, sic as alcohol dehydrogenase in humans.[8] Consumption o excess zinc can cause ataxia, lethargy an capper deficiency.

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Thornton, C. P. (2007). "Of brass and bronze in prehistoric Southwest Asia" (PDF). Papers and Lectures Online. Archetype Publications. ISBN 1-904982-19-0. 
  2. Greenwood 1997, p. 1201
  3. Craddock, Paul T. (1978). "The composition of copper alloys used by the Greek, Etruscan and Roman civilizations. The origins and early use of brass". Journal of Archaeological Science. 5 (1): 1–16. doi:10.1016/0305-4403(78)90015-8. 
  4. "India Was the First to Smelt Zinc by Distillation Process". Infinityfoundation.com. Retrieved Aprile 25, 2014. 
  5. Kharakwal, J. S. & Gurjar, L. K. (December 1, 2006). "Zinc and Brass in Archaeological Perspective". Ancient Asia. 1: 139–159. doi:10.5334/aa.06112. 
  6. 6.0 6.1 Hambidge, K. M. & Krebs, N. F. (2007). "Zinc deficiency: a special challenge". J. Nutr. 137 (4): 1101–5. PMID 17374687. 
  7. Prasad, A. S. (2003). "Zinc deficiency : Has been known of for 40 years but ignored by global health organisations". British Medical Journal. 326 (7386): 409–10. PMC 1125304. PMID 12595353. doi:10.1136/bmj.326.7386.409. 
  8. Maret, Wolfgang (2013). "Chapter 14 Zinc and the Zinc Proteome". In Banci, Lucia. Metallomics and the Cell. Metal Ions in Life Sciences. 12. Springer. ISBN 978-94-007-5561-1. doi:10.1007/978-94-007-5561-10_14.