Lanthanum

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Lanthanum,  57La
Lanthanum-2.jpg
General properties
Appearance sillery white
Staundart atomic wecht (Ar, staundart) 138.90547(7)
Lanthanum in the periodic cairt
Hydrogen Helium
Lithium Beryllium Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine Neon
Sodium Magnesium Aluminium Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon
Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Airn Cobalt Nickel Capper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton
Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium Siller (element) Cadmium Indium Tin Antimony Tellurium Iodine Xenon
Caesium Barium Lanthanum Cerium Praseodymium Neodymium Promethium Samarium Europium Gadolinium Terbium Dysprosium Holmium Erbium Thulium Ytterbium Lutetium Hafnium Tantalum Tungsten Rhenium Osmium Iridium Platinum Gold Mercur (element) Thallium Leid (element) Bismuth Polonium Astatine Radon
Francium Radium Actinium Thorium Protactinium Uranium Neptunium Plutonium Americium Curium Berkelium Californium Einsteinium Fermium Mendelevium Nobelium Lawrencium Rutherfordium Dubnium Seaborgium Bohrium Hassium Meitnerium Darmstadtium Roentgenium Copernicium Ununtrium Flerovium Ununpentium Livermorium Ununseptium Ununoctium
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La

Ac
bariumlanthanumcerium
Atomic nummer (Z) 57
Group group 3
Period period 6
Element category   lanthanide
Block f-block
Electron confeeguration [Xe] 5d1 6s2
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 18, 18, 9, 2
Pheesical properties
Phase (at STP) solit
Meltin pynt 1193 K ​(920 °C, ​1688 °F)
Bylin pynt 3737 K ​(3464 °C, ​6267 °F)
Density (near r.t.) 6.162 g/cm3
when liquid (at m.p.) 5.94 g/cm3
Heat o fusion 6.20 kJ/mol
Heat o vapourisation 402.1 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity 27.11 J/(mol·K)
Vapour pressur (extrapolated)
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 2005 2208 2458 2772 3178 3726
Atomic properties
Oxidation states 3, 2 (strangly basic oxide)
Electronegativity Pauling scale: 1.10
Atomic radius empirical: 187 pm
Covalent radius 207±8 pm
Color lines in a spectral range
Miscellanea
Creestal structur hexagonal
Hexagonal creestal structur for lanthanum
Speed o soond thin rod 2475 m/s (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansion (r.t.) (α, poly) 12.1 µm/(m·K)
Thermal conductivity 13.4 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity (r.t.) (α, poly) 615 n Ω·m
Magnetic orderin paramagnetic[1]
Young's modulus (α form) 36.6 GPa
Shear modulus (α form) 14.3 GPa
Bouk modulus (α form) 27.9 GPa
Poisson ratio (α form) 0.280
Mohs haurdness 2.5
Vickers haurdness 491 MPa
Brinell haurdness 363 MPa
CAS Nummer 7439-91-0
History
Diskivery Carl Gustaf Mosander (1838)
Main isotopes o lanthanum
Iso­tope Abun­dance Hauf-life (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct
137La syn 6×104 y ε 137Ba
138La 0.090% 1.05×1011 y ε 1.737 138Ba
β 1.044 138Ce
139La 99.910% - (SF)
Decay modes in parentheses are predicted, but hisna yet been observed
| references | in Wikidata

Lanthanum is a chemical element wi the seembol La an atomic nummer 57. Lanthanum is a siller white metallic element an is the first element o the lanthanide series. It is foond in some rare-yird minerals, uisually in combination wi cerium an ither rare yird elements. Lanthanum is a malleable, ductile, an saft metal that oxidises rapidly whan exposed tae air. It is produced frae the minerals monazite an bastnäsite uisin a complex multistage extraction process. Lanthanum compoonds hae hantle applications as catalysts, additives in gless, carbon lichtin for studio lichtin an projection, igneetion elements in lichters an torches, electron cathodes, scintillators, an ithers. Lanthanum carbonate (La2(CO3)3) haes been approved as a medicine for treatin renal failur.

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