Titanium

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Titanium,  22Ti
Titan-crystal bar.JPG
General properties
Appearancesillery grey-white metallic
Staundart atomic wecht (Ar, staundart)47.867(1)[1]
Titanium in the periodic cairt
Hydrogen Helium
Lithium Beryllium Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine Neon
Sodium Magnesium Aluminium Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon
Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Airn Cobalt Nickel Capper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton
Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium Siller (element) Cadmium Indium Tin Antimony Tellurium Iodine Xenon
Caesium Barium Lanthanum Cerium Praseodymium Neodymium Promethium Samarium Europium Gadolinium Terbium Dysprosium Holmium Erbium Thulium Ytterbium Lutetium Hafnium Tantalum Tungsten Rhenium Osmium Iridium Platinum Gowd Mercur (element) Thallium Leid (element) Bismuth Polonium Astatine Radon
Francium Radium Actinium Thorium Protactinium Uranium Neptunium Plutonium Americium Curium Berkelium Californium Einsteinium Fermium Mendelevium Nobelium Lawrencium Rutherfordium Dubnium Seaborgium Bohrium Hassium Meitnerium Darmstadtium Roentgenium Copernicium Ununtrium Flerovium Ununpentium Livermorium Ununseptium Ununoctium
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Ti

Zr
scandiumtitaniumvanadium
Atomic nummer (Z)22
Groupgroup 4
Periodperiod 4
Element category  transition metal
Blockd-block
Electron confeeguration[Ar] 3d2 4s2
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 10, 2
Pheesical properties
Phase (at STP)solit
Meltin pynt1941 K ​(1668 °C, ​3034 °F)
Bylin pynt3560 K ​(3287 °C, ​5949 °F)
Density (near r.t.)4.506 g/cm3
when liquid (at m.p.)4.11 g/cm3
Heat o fusion14.15 kJ/mol
Heat o vapourisation425 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity25.060 J/(mol·K)
Vapour pressur
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 1982 2171 (2403) 2692 3064 3558
Atomic properties
Oxidation states4, 3, 2, 1[2] amphoteric oxide
ElectronegativityPauling scale: 1.54
Ionisation energies
Atomic radiusempirical: 147 pm
Covalent radius160±8 pm
Coloyr lines in a spectral range
Spectral lines o Titanium
Miscellanea
Creestal structurhexagonal close-packed (hcp)
Hexagonal close packed creestal structur for titanium
Speed o soond thin rod5,090 m/s (at r.t.)
Thermal expansion8.6 µm/(m·K) (at 25 °C)
Thermal conductivity21.9 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity420 n Ω·m (at 20 °C)
Magnetic orderinparamagnetic
Young's modulus116 GPa
Shear modulus44 GPa
Bouk modulus110 GPa
Poisson ratio0.32
Mohs haurdness6.0
Vickers haurdness970 MPa
Brinell haurdness716 MPa
CAS Nummer7440-32-6
History
DiskiveryWilliam Gregor (1791)
First isolationJöns Jakob Berzelius (1825)
Named biMartin Heinrich Klaproth (1795)
Main isotopes o titanium
Iso­tope Abun­dance Hauf-life (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct
44Ti syn 63 y ε 44Sc
γ -
46Ti 8.0% stable
47Ti 7.3% stable
48Ti 73.8% stable
49Ti 5.5% stable
50Ti 5.4% stable
| references | in Wikidata

Titanium is a chemical element wi the seembol Ti an atomic nummer 22. It is a lustrous transeetion metal wi a siller colour, law density an heich strength. It is heichly resistant tae corrosion in sea watter, aqua regia an chlorine.

Titanium wis diskivert in Cornwall, Great Breetain, bi William Gregor in 1791, an wis named bi Martin Heinrich Klaproth efter the Titans o Greek meethologie. The element occurs within a nummer o meeneral deposits, principally rutile an ilmenite, that are widely distributit in the Yird's crust an lithosphere, an it is foond in awmaist aw leevin things, watter bouks, rocks, an siles.[3] The metal is extractit frae its principal mineral ures bi the Kroll[4] an Hunter processes. The maist common compoond, titanium dioxide, is a popular photocatalyst an is uised in the manufactur o white pigments.[5] Ither compoonds include titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4), a component o smeuk screens an catalysts; an titanium trichloride (TiCl3), that is uised as a catalyst in the production o polypropylene.[3]

Titanium can be alloyed wi airn, alumeenium, vanadium, an molybdenum, amang ither elements, tae produce strang, lichtwecht alloys for aerospace (jet ingines, missiles, an spacecraft), militar, industrial processes (chemicals an petrochemicals, desalination plants, pulp, an paper), automotive, agri-fuid, medical prostheses, orthopedic implants, dental an endodontic instruments an files, dental implants, sportin guids, jewelry, mobile phones, an ither applications.[3]

The twa maist uisefu properties o the metal are corrosion resistance an strenth-tae-density ratio, the heichest o ony metallic element.[6] In its unalloyed condeetion, titanium is as strang as some steels, but less dense.[7] There are two allotropic forms[8] an five naiturally occurrin isotopes o this element, 46Ti throu 50Ti, wi 48Ti bein the maist abundant (73.8%).[9] Awtho thay hae the same nummer o valence electrons an are in the same group in the periodic cairt, titanium an zirconium differ in mony chemical an pheesical properties.

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Meija, J.; et al. (2016). "Atomic weights of the elements 2013 (IUPAC Technical Report)". Pure and Applied Chemistry. 88 (3): 265–91. doi:10.1515/pac-2015-0305. 
  2. Andersson, N.; et al. (2003). "Emission spectra of TiH and TiD near 938 nm" (PDF). J. Chem. Phys. 118: 10543. Bibcode:2003JChPh.118.3543A. doi:10.1063/1.1539848. 
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 "Titanium". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2006. Retrieved 29 December 2006. 
  4. Lide, D. R., ed. (2005). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (86th ed.). Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press. ISBN 0-8493-0486-5. 
  5. Krebs, Robert E. (2006). The History and Use of Our Earth's Chemical Elements: A Reference Guide (2nd ed.). Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. ISBN 978-0-313-33438-2. 
  6. Donachie 1988, p. 11
  7. Barksdale 1968, p. 738
  8. "Titanium". Columbia Encyclopedia (6th ed.). New York: Columbia University Press. 2000–2006. ISBN 978-0-7876-5015-5. Archived from the original on 18 November 2011. 
  9. Barbalace, Kenneth L. (2006). "Periodic Table of Elements: Ti – Titanium". Retrieved 26 December 2006.