Aluminium

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Aluminium,  13Al
Aluminium-4.jpg
Aluminum Spectra.jpg
Spectral lines o aluminium
General properties
Name, seembol aluminium, Al
Pronunciation

UK Listeni/ˌæljʉˈmɪniəm/
AL-ew-MIN-ee-əm;

US Listeni/əˈljmɨnəm/
ə-LEW-mi-nəm
Appearance sillery gray metallic
Aluminium in the periodic cairt
Hydrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Helium (noble gas)
Lithium (alkali metal)
Beryllium (alkaline yird metal)
Boron (metalloid)
Carbon (polyatomic nonmetal)
Nitrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Oxygen (diatomic nonmetal)
Fluorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Neon (noble gas)
Sodium (alkali metal)
Magnesium (alkaline yird metal)
Aluminium (post-transeetion metal)
Silicon (metalloid)
Phosphorus (polyatomic nonmetal)
Sulfur (polyatomic nonmetal)
Chlorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Argon (noble gas)
Potassium (alkali metal)
Calcium (alkaline yird metal)
Scandium (transeetion metal)
Titanium (transeetion metal)
Vanadium (transeetion metal)
Chromium (transeetion metal)
Manganese (transeetion metal)
Iron (transeetion metal)
Cobalt (transeetion metal)
Nickel (transeetion metal)
Copper (transeetion metal)
Zinc (transeetion metal)
Gallium (post-transeetion metal)
Germanium (metalloid)
Arsenic (metalloid)
Selenium (polyatomic nonmetal)
Bromine (diatomic nonmetal)
Krypton (noble gas)
Rubidium (alkali metal)
Strontium (alkaline yird metal)
Yttrium (transeetion metal)
Zirconium (transeetion metal)
Niobium (transeetion metal)
Molybdenum (transeetion metal)
Technetium (transeetion metal)
Ruthenium (transeetion metal)
Rhodium (transeetion metal)
Palladium (transeetion metal)
Silver (transeetion metal)
Cadmium (transeetion metal)
Indium (post-transeetion metal)
Tin (post-transeetion metal)
Antimony (metalloid)
Tellurium (metalloid)
Iodine (diatomic nonmetal)
Xenon (noble gas)
Caesium (alkali metal)
Barium (alkaline yird metal)
Lanthanum (lanthanide)
Cerium (lanthanide)
Praseodymium (lanthanide)
Neodymium (lanthanide)
Promethium (lanthanide)
Samarium (lanthanide)
Europium (lanthanide)
Gadolinium (lanthanide)
Terbium (lanthanide)
Dysprosium (lanthanide)
Holmium (lanthanide)
Erbium (lanthanide)
Thulium (lanthanide)
Ytterbium (lanthanide)
Lutetium (lanthanide)
Hafnium (transeetion metal)
Tantalum (transeetion metal)
Tungsten (transeetion metal)
Rhenium (transeetion metal)
Osmium (transeetion metal)
Iridium (transeetion metal)
Platinum (transeetion metal)
Gold (transeetion metal)
Mercury (transeetion metal)
Thallium (post-transeetion metal)
Lead (post-transeetion metal)
Bismuth (post-transeetion metal)
Polonium (post-transeetion metal)
Astatine (metalloid)
Radon (noble gas)
Francium (alkali metal)
Radium (alkaline yird metal)
Actinium (actinide)
Thorium (actinide)
Protactinium (actinide)
Uranium (actinide)
Neptunium (actinide)
Plutonium (actinide)
Americium (actinide)
Curium (actinide)
Berkelium (actinide)
Californium (actinide)
Einsteinium (actinide)
Fermium (actinide)
Mendelevium (actinide)
Nobelium (actinide)
Lawrencium (actinide)
Rutherfordium (transeetion metal)
Dubnium (transeetion metal)
Seaborgium (transeetion metal)
Bohrium (transeetion metal)
Hassium (transeetion metal)
Meitnerium (unkent chemical properties)
Darmstadtium (unkent chemical properties)
Roentgenium (unkent chemical properties)
Copernicium (transeetion metal)
Ununtrium (unkent chemical properties)
Flerovium (post-transeetion metal)
Ununpentium (unkent chemical properties)
Livermorium (unkent chemical properties)
Ununseptium (unkent chemical properties)
Ununoctium (unkent chemical properties)
B

Al

Ga
magnesiumaluminiumsilicon
Atomic nummer 13
Staundart atomic wicht (±) (Ar) 26.9815386(13)
Element category   post-transeetion metal
Group, block group 13, p-block
Period period 3
Electron configuration [Ne] 3s2 3p1
per shell
2, 8, 3
Pheesical properties
Phase solid
Meltin pynt 933.47 K ​(660.32 °C, ​1220.58 °F)
Boilin pynt 2792 K ​(2519 °C, ​4566 °F)
Density near r.t. 2.70 g/cm3
when liquid, at m.p. 2.375 g/cm3
Heat o fusion 10.71 kJ/mol
Heat o 294.0 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity 24.200 J/(mol·K)
 pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 1482 1632 1817 2054 2364 2790
Atomic properties
Oxidation states 3, 2[1], 1[2]amphoteric oxide
Electronegativity Pauling scale: 1.61
energies
(mair)
Atomic radius empirical: 143 pm
Covalent radius 121±4 pm
Van der Waals radius 184 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structur face-centered cubic (fcc)
Face-centered cubic crystal structure for aluminium
Speed o soond thin rod (rolled) 5,000 m/s (at r.t.)
Thermal expansion 23.1 µm/(m·K) (at 25 °C)
Thermal conductivity 237 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity 28.2 n Ω·m (at 20 °C)
Magnetic orderin paramagnetic[3]
Young's modulus 70 GPa
Shear modulus 26 GPa
Bulk modulus 76 GPa
Poisson ratio 0.35
Mohs haurdness 2.75
Vickers haurdness 167 MPa
Brinell haurdness 245 MPa
CAS Registry Nummer 7429-90-5
History
Prediction Antoine Lavoisier[4] (1787)
First isolation Friedrich Wöhler[4] (1827)
Named by Humphry Davy[4] (1807)
Maist stable isotopes
Main article: Isotopes o aluminium
iso NA hauf-life DM DE (MeV) DP
26Al trace 7.17×105 y β+ 1.17 26Mg
ε - 26Mg
γ 1.8086 -
27Al 100% 27Al is stable wi 14 neutrons
· references

Aluminium (or aluminum) is a chemical element in the boron group wi seembol Al an atomic nummer 13. It is a sillery white, saft, ductile metal. Aluminium is the third maist abundant element (efter oxygen an silicon), an the maist abundant metal, in the Yird's crust. It maks up aboot 8% bi wicht o the Yird's solid surface. Aluminium metal is so chemically reactive that native specimens are rare an leemitit tae extreme reducing environments. Instead, it is foond combined in ower 270 different minerals.[5] The chief ore o aluminium is bauxite.

Aluminium is remarkable for the metal's law density an for its ability tae resist corrosion due tae the phenomenon o passivation. Structural components made frae aluminium an its alloys are vital tae the aerospace industry an are important in ither auries o transportation an structural materials. The maist uiseful compounds o aluminium, at least on a wicht basis, are the oxides an sulfates.

Despite its prevalence in the environment, aluminium salts are nae kent tae be uised bi ony fairm o life. In keepin wi its pervasiveness, aluminium is well toleratit bi plants an ainimals.[6] Owin tae thair prevalence, potential beneficial (or itherwise) biological roles o aluminium compounds are o continuin interest.

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Aluminium monoxide
  2. Aluminium iodide
  3. Lide, D. R. (2000). "Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds". [[CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics]] (81st ed.). CRC Press. ISBN 0849304814.  Wikilink embedded in URL title (help)
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 "Aluminum". Los Alamos National Laboratory. Retrieved 3 March 2013. 
  5. Shakhashiri, B. Z. (17 March 2008). "Chemical of the Week: Aluminum". SciFun.org. University of Wisconsin. Retrieved 2012-03-04. 
  6. Helmboldt, O. (2007). "Aluminum Compounds, Inorganic". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/14356007.a01_527.pub2. 

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