Ruthenium

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Ruthenium,  44Ru
Ruthenium crystals.jpg
General properties
Appearancesillery white metallic
Staundart atomic wecht (Ar, staundart)101.07(2)[1]
Ruthenium in the periodic cairt
Hydrogen Helium
Lithium Beryllium Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine Neon
Sodium Magnesium Aluminium Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon
Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Airn Cobalt Nickel Capper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton
Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium Siller (element) Cadmium Indium Tin Antimony Tellurium Iodine Xenon
Caesium Barium Lanthanum Cerium Praseodymium Neodymium Promethium Samarium Europium Gadolinium Terbium Dysprosium Holmium Erbium Thulium Ytterbium Lutetium Hafnium Tantalum Tungsten Rhenium Osmium Iridium Platinum Gowd Mercur (element) Thallium Leid (element) Bismuth Polonium Astatine Radon
Francium Radium Actinium Thorium Protactinium Uranium Neptunium Plutonium Americium Curium Berkelium Californium Einsteinium Fermium Mendelevium Nobelium Lawrencium Rutherfordium Dubnium Seaborgium Bohrium Hassium Meitnerium Darmstadtium Roentgenium Copernicium Ununtrium Flerovium Ununpentium Livermorium Ununseptium Ununoctium
Fe

Ru

Os
technetiumrutheniumrhodium
Atomic nummer (Z)44
Groupgroup 8
Periodperiod 5
Element category  transition metal
Blockd-block
Electron confeeguration[Kr] 4d7 5s1
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 18, 15, 1
Pheesical properties
Meltin pynt2607 K ​(2334 °C, ​4233 °F)
Bylin pynt4423 K ​(4150 °C, ​7502 °F)
Density (near r.t.)12.45 g/cm3
when liquid (at m.p.)10.65 g/cm3
Heat o fusion38.59 kJ/mol
Heat o vapourisation591.6 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity24.06 J/(mol·K)
Vapour pressur
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 2588 2811 3087 3424 3845 4388
Atomic properties
Oxidation states8, 7, 6, 4, 3, 2, 1,[2] -2
(mildly acidic oxide)
ElectronegativityPauling scale: 2.2
Atomic radiusempirical: 134 pm
Covalent radius146±7 pm
Coloyr lines in a spectral range
Spectral lines o Ruthenium
Miscellanea
Creestal structurhexagonal close-packed (hcp)
Hexagonal close packed creestal structur for ruthenium
Speed o soond thin rod5970 m/s (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansion6.4 µm/(m·K) (at 25 °C)
Thermal conductivity117 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity71 n Ω·m (at 0 °C)
Magnetic orderinparamagnetic[3]
Young's modulus447 GPa
Shear modulus173 GPa
Bouk modulus220 GPa
Poisson ratio0.30
Mohs haurdness6.5
Brinell haurdness2160 MPa
CAS Nummer7440-18-8
History
DiskiveryJędrzej Śniadecki (1807)
First isolationJędrzej Śniadecki (1807)
Recognised as a distinct element byKarl Ernst Claus (1844)
Main isotopes o ruthenium
Iso­tope Abun­dance Hauf-life (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct
96Ru 5.52% >6.7×1016 y (β+β+) 96Mo
97Ru syn 2.9 d ε 97Tc
γ -
98Ru 1.88% - (SF) -
99Ru 12.7% - (SF) -
100Ru 12.6% - (SF) -
101Ru 17.0% - (SF) -
102Ru 31.6% - (SF) -
103Ru syn 39.26 d β 103Rh
γ -
104Ru 18.7% - (ββ) 104Pd
106Ru syn 373.59 d β 106Rh
Decay modes in parentheses is predict, but hisna yet been observed
| references | in Wikidata

Ruthenium is a chemical element wi seembol Ru an atomic nummer 44. It is a rare transeetion metal belangin the platinum group o the periodic table. Lik the ither metals o the platinum group, ruthenium is inert tae maist ither chemicals. The Baltic German scientist Karl Ernst Claus diskivered the element in 1844, an named it efter Ruthenia, the Laitin wird for Rus'. Ruthenium uisually occurs as a minor component o platinum ores; annual production is aboot 20 tonne.[4] Maist ruthenium produced is uised for wear-resistant electrical contacts an the production o thick-film resistors. A minor application o ruthenium is its uise in some platinum alloys.

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Meija, J.; et al. (2016). "Atomic weights of the elements 2013 (IUPAC Technical Report)". Pure and Applied Chemistry. 88 (3): 265–91. doi:10.1515/pac-2015-0305. 
  2. "Ruthenium: ruthenium(I) fluoride compound data". OpenMOPAC.net. Retrieved 2007-12-10. 
  3. Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds, in Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 81st edition, CRC press.
  4. Summary. Ruthenium. platinum.matthey.com, p. 9 (2009)