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Gallium,  31Ga
Gallium crystals.jpg
General properties
Name, seembol gallium, Ga
Appearance silver-white
Pronunciation /ˈɡæliəm/ GAL-ee-əm
Gallium in the periodic cairt
Hydrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Helium (noble gas)
Lithium (alkali metal)
Beryllium (alkaline yird metal)
Boron (metalloid)
Carbon (polyatomic nonmetal)
Nitrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Oxygen (diatomic nonmetal)
Fluorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Neon (noble gas)
Sodium (alkali metal)
Magnesium (alkaline yird metal)
Aluminium (post-transeetion metal)
Silicon (metalloid)
Phosphorus (polyatomic nonmetal)
Sulfur (polyatomic nonmetal)
Chlorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Argon (noble gas)
Potassium (alkali metal)
Calcium (alkaline yird metal)
Scandium (transeetion metal)
Titanium (transeetion metal)
Vanadium (transeetion metal)
Chromium (transeetion metal)
Manganese (transeetion metal)
Airn (transeetion metal)
Cobalt (transeetion metal)
Nickel (transeetion metal)
Capper (transeetion metal)
Zinc (transeetion metal)
Gallium (post-transeetion metal)
Germanium (metalloid)
Arsenic (metalloid)
Selenium (polyatomic nonmetal)
Bromine (diatomic nonmetal)
Krypton (noble gas)
Rubidium (alkali metal)
Strontium (alkaline yird metal)
Yttrium (transeetion metal)
Zirconium (transeetion metal)
Niobium (transeetion metal)
Molybdenum (transeetion metal)
Technetium (transeetion metal)
Ruthenium (transeetion metal)
Rhodium (transeetion metal)
Palladium (transeetion metal)
Siller (transeetion metal)
Cadmium (transeetion metal)
Indium (post-transeetion metal)
Tin (post-transeetion metal)
Antimony (metalloid)
Tellurium (metalloid)
Iodine (diatomic nonmetal)
Xenon (noble gas)
Caesium (alkali metal)
Barium (alkaline yird metal)
Lanthanum (lanthanide)
Cerium (lanthanide)
Praseodymium (lanthanide)
Neodymium (lanthanide)
Promethium (lanthanide)
Samarium (lanthanide)
Europium (lanthanide)
Gadolinium (lanthanide)
Terbium (lanthanide)
Dysprosium (lanthanide)
Holmium (lanthanide)
Erbium (lanthanide)
Thulium (lanthanide)
Ytterbium (lanthanide)
Lutetium (lanthanide)
Hafnium (transeetion metal)
Tantalum (transeetion metal)
Tungsten (transeetion metal)
Rhenium (transeetion metal)
Osmium (transeetion metal)
Iridium (transeetion metal)
Platinum (transeetion metal)
Gold (transeetion metal)
Mercur (transeetion metal)
Thallium (post-transeetion metal)
Leid (post-transeetion metal)
Bismuth (post-transeetion metal)
Polonium (post-transeetion metal)
Astatine (metalloid)
Radon (noble gas)
Francium (alkali metal)
Radium (alkaline yird metal)
Actinium (actinide)
Thorium (actinide)
Protactinium (actinide)
Uranium (actinide)
Neptunium (actinide)
Plutonium (actinide)
Americium (actinide)
Curium (actinide)
Berkelium (actinide)
Californium (actinide)
Einsteinium (actinide)
Fermium (actinide)
Mendelevium (actinide)
Nobelium (actinide)
Lawrencium (actinide)
Rutherfordium (transeetion metal)
Dubnium (transeetion metal)
Seaborgium (transeetion metal)
Bohrium (transeetion metal)
Hassium (transeetion metal)
Meitnerium (unkent chemical properties)
Darmstadtium (unkent chemical properties)
Roentgenium (unkent chemical properties)
Copernicium (transeetion metal)
Ununtrium (unkent chemical properties)
Flerovium (post-transeetion metal)
Ununpentium (unkent chemical properties)
Livermorium (unkent chemical properties)
Ununseptium (unkent chemical properties)
Ununoctium (unkent chemical properties)


Atomic nummer (Z) 31
Group, block group 13, p-block
Period period 4
Element category   poor metal
Staundart atomic wicht (±) (Ar) 69.723(1)
Electron configuration [Ar] 4s2 3d10 4p1
per shell
2, 8, 18, 3
Pheesical properties
Phase solid
Meltin pynt 302.9146 K ​(29.7646 °C, ​85.5763 °F)
Bylin pynt 2477 K ​(2204 °C, ​3999 °F)
Density near r.t. 5.91 g/cm3
when liquid, at m.p. 6.095 g/cm3
Heat o fusion 5.59 kJ/mol
Heat o vapourisation 254 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity 25.86 J/(mol·K)
vapour pressur
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 1310 1448 1620 1838 2125 2518
Atomic properties
Oxidation states 3, 2, 1amphoteric oxide
Electronegativity Pauling scale: 1.81
Ionisation energies
Atomic radius empirical: 135 pm
Covalent radius 122±3 pm
Van der Waals radius 187 pm
Creestal structur orthorhombic
Orthorhombic crystal structur for gallium
Speed o soond thin rod 2740 m/s (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansion 18 µm/(m·K) (at 25 °C)
Thermal conductivity 40.6 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity 270 n Ω·m (at 20 °C)
Magnetic orderin diamagnetic
Young's modulus 9.8 GPa
Poisson ratio 0.47
Mohs haurdness 1.5
Brinell haurdness 60 MPa
CAS Nummer 7440-55-3
Prediction Dmitri Mendeleev (1871)
Diskivery Lecoq de Boisbaudran (1875)
First isolation Lecoq de Boisbaudran (1875)
Maist stable isotopes o gallium
iso NA hauf-life DM DE (MeV) DP
69Ga 60.11% 69Ga is stable wi 38 neutrons
71Ga 39.89% 71Ga is stable wi 40 neutrons
· references

Gallium is a chemical element wi seembol Ga an atomic nummer 31. Elemental gallium disnae occur in free furm in naitur, but as the gallium(III) compoonds that is in trace amoonts in zinc ores an in bauxite. Gallium is a saft sillery metal, an elemental gallium is a brickle solid at law temperaturs. Gif it is held in the human haund lang eneuch, gallium will melt, syne it melts at the temperatur o aboot 29.76 °C (85.57 °F) (slichtly abuin ruim temperatur). The meltin pynt o gallium is uised as a temperatur reference pynt. The alloy galinstan (68.5% gallium, 21.5% indium, an 10% tin) haes the even lawer meltin pynt o −19 °C (−2 °F), weel ablo the freezin pynt o watter. Beginnin wi its discovery in 1875 through the era o semiconductors, gallium wis uised primarily as an agent tae mak alloys that melt at law temperaturs. Then, gallium became uiseful in semiconductors, includin as a dopant.

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