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Gallium,  31Ga
Gallium crystals.jpg
General properties
Name, seembol gallium, Ga
Appearance silver-white
Pronunciation /ˈɡæliəm/ GAL-ee-əm
Gallium in the periodic cairt
Hydrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Helium (noble gas)
Lithium (alkali metal)
Beryllium (alkaline yird metal)
Boron (metalloid)
Carbon (polyatomic nonmetal)
Nitrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Oxygen (diatomic nonmetal)
Fluorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Neon (noble gas)
Sodium (alkali metal)
Magnesium (alkaline yird metal)
Aluminium (post-transeetion metal)
Silicon (metalloid)
Phosphorus (polyatomic nonmetal)
Sulfur (polyatomic nonmetal)
Chlorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Argon (noble gas)
Potassium (alkali metal)
Calcium (alkaline yird metal)
Scandium (transeetion metal)
Titanium (transeetion metal)
Vanadium (transeetion metal)
Chromium (transeetion metal)
Manganese (transeetion metal)
Iron (transeetion metal)
Cobalt (transeetion metal)
Nickel (transeetion metal)
Copper (transeetion metal)
Zinc (transeetion metal)
Gallium (post-transeetion metal)
Germanium (metalloid)
Arsenic (metalloid)
Selenium (polyatomic nonmetal)
Bromine (diatomic nonmetal)
Krypton (noble gas)
Rubidium (alkali metal)
Strontium (alkaline yird metal)
Yttrium (transeetion metal)
Zirconium (transeetion metal)
Niobium (transeetion metal)
Molybdenum (transeetion metal)
Technetium (transeetion metal)
Ruthenium (transeetion metal)
Rhodium (transeetion metal)
Palladium (transeetion metal)
Siller (transeetion metal)
Cadmium (transeetion metal)
Indium (post-transeetion metal)
Tin (post-transeetion metal)
Antimony (metalloid)
Tellurium (metalloid)
Iodine (diatomic nonmetal)
Xenon (noble gas)
Caesium (alkali metal)
Barium (alkaline yird metal)
Lanthanum (lanthanide)
Cerium (lanthanide)
Praseodymium (lanthanide)
Neodymium (lanthanide)
Promethium (lanthanide)
Samarium (lanthanide)
Europium (lanthanide)
Gadolinium (lanthanide)
Terbium (lanthanide)
Dysprosium (lanthanide)
Holmium (lanthanide)
Erbium (lanthanide)
Thulium (lanthanide)
Ytterbium (lanthanide)
Lutetium (lanthanide)
Hafnium (transeetion metal)
Tantalum (transeetion metal)
Tungsten (transeetion metal)
Rhenium (transeetion metal)
Osmium (transeetion metal)
Iridium (transeetion metal)
Platinum (transeetion metal)
Gold (transeetion metal)
Mercur (transeetion metal)
Thallium (post-transeetion metal)
Lead (post-transeetion metal)
Bismuth (post-transeetion metal)
Polonium (post-transeetion metal)
Astatine (metalloid)
Radon (noble gas)
Francium (alkali metal)
Radium (alkaline yird metal)
Actinium (actinide)
Thorium (actinide)
Protactinium (actinide)
Uranium (actinide)
Neptunium (actinide)
Plutonium (actinide)
Americium (actinide)
Curium (actinide)
Berkelium (actinide)
Californium (actinide)
Einsteinium (actinide)
Fermium (actinide)
Mendelevium (actinide)
Nobelium (actinide)
Lawrencium (actinide)
Rutherfordium (transeetion metal)
Dubnium (transeetion metal)
Seaborgium (transeetion metal)
Bohrium (transeetion metal)
Hassium (transeetion metal)
Meitnerium (unkent chemical properties)
Darmstadtium (unkent chemical properties)
Roentgenium (unkent chemical properties)
Copernicium (transeetion metal)
Ununtrium (unkent chemical properties)
Flerovium (post-transeetion metal)
Ununpentium (unkent chemical properties)
Livermorium (unkent chemical properties)
Ununseptium (unkent chemical properties)
Ununoctium (unkent chemical properties)


Atomic nummer (Z) 31
Group, block group 13, p-block
Period period 4
Element category   poor metal
Staundart atomic wicht (±) (Ar) 69.723(1)
Electron configuration [Ar] 4s2 3d10 4p1
per shell
2, 8, 18, 3
Pheesical properties
Phase solid
Meltin pynt 302.9146 K ​(29.7646 °C, ​85.5763 °F)
Boilin pynt 2477 K ​(2204 °C, ​3999 °F)
Density near r.t. 5.91 g/cm3
when liquid, at m.p. 6.095 g/cm3
Heat of fusion 5.59 kJ/mol
Heat o 254 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity 25.86 J/(mol·K)
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 1310 1448 1620 1838 2125 2518
Atomic properties
Oxidation states 3, 2, 1amphoteric oxide
Electronegativity Pauling scale: 1.81
Atomic radius empirical: 135 pm
Covalent radius 122±3 pm
Van der Waals radius 187 pm
Crystal structur orthorhombic
Orthorhombic crystal structur for gallium
Speed o soond thin rod 2740 m/s (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansion 18 µm/(m·K) (at 25 °C)
Thermal conductivity 40.6 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity 270 n Ω·m (at 20 °C)
Magnetic orderin diamagnetic
Young's modulus 9.8 GPa
Poisson ratio 0.47
Mohs haurdness 1.5
Brinell haurdness 60 MPa
CAS Nummer 7440-55-3
Prediction Dmitri Mendeleev (1871)
Discovery Lecoq de Boisbaudran (1875)
First isolation Lecoq de Boisbaudran (1875)
Maist stable isotopes o gallium
iso NA hauf-life DM DE (MeV) DP
69Ga 60.11% 69Ga is stable wi 38 neutrons
71Ga 39.89% 71Ga is stable wi 40 neutrons
· references

Gallium is an element that is widely known for melting at just above room temperature, leading to the fact that it will slowly melt in your hand. Its symbol on the periodic table is Ga and its icon is a rooster, one of the many known icon puns.[eedit | eedit soorce]

It is a solid below or at room temperature, and it was discovered in 1875 by Paul-Emile Lecoq de Boisbaudran. It is a silvery-white color when it is pure, and is so soft it can be cut by a knife.[eedit | eedit soorce]

Gallium is reactive with acids and alkalis. It is in group 13, or the boron group with boron, aluminium, indium, thallium, and maybe the newly discovered ununtrium.[eedit | eedit soorce]