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(Reguidit frae Copper)
Copper, 29Cu
Template:Infobox element/symbol-to-top-image/alt
Appearancereid-orange metallic luster
Standard atomic weight Ar, std(Cu)63.546(3)[1]
Copper in the periodic cairt
Hydrogen Helium
Lithium Beryllium Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine Neon
Sodium Magnesium Aluminium Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon
Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Airn Cobalt Nickel Capper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton
Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium Siller (element) Cadmium Indium Tin Antimony Tellurium Iodine Xenon
Caesium Barium Lanthanum Cerium Praseodymium Neodymium Promethium Samarium Europium Gadolinium Terbium Dysprosium Holmium Erbium Thulium Ytterbium Lutetium Hafnium Tantalum Tungsten Rhenium Osmium Iridium Platinum Gowd Mercur (element) Thallium Leid (element) Bismuth Polonium Astatine Radon
Francium Radium Actinium Thorium Protactinium Uranium Neptunium Plutonium Americium Curium Berkelium Californium Einsteinium Fermium Mendelevium Nobelium Lawrencium Rutherfordium Dubnium Seaborgium Bohrium Hassium Meitnerium Darmstadtium Roentgenium Copernicium Ununtrium Flerovium Ununpentium Livermorium Ununseptium Ununoctium


Atomic nummer (Z)29
Groupgroup 11
Periodperiod 4
Element category  Transeetion metal
Electron confeeguration[Ar] 3d10 4s1
Electrons per shell2, 8, 18, 1
Pheesical properties
Phase at STPsolit
Meltin pynt1357.77 K ​(1084.62 °C, ​1984.32 °F)
Bylin pynt2835 K ​(2562 °C, ​4643 °F)
Density (near r.t.)8.96 g/cm3
when liquid (at m.p.)8.02 g/cm3
Heat o fusion13.26 kJ/mol
Heat o vapourisation300.4 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity24.440 J/(mol·K)
Vapour pressur
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 1509 1661 1850 2089 2404 2834
Atomic properties
Oxidation states−2, 0,[2] +1, +2, +3, +4 (a mildly basic oxide)
ElectronegativityPauling scale: 1.90
Ionisation energies
Atomic radiusempirical: 128 pm
Covalent radius132±4 pm
Van der Waals radius140 pm
Colour lines in a spectral range
Colour lines in a spectral range
Spectral lines o copper
Ither properties
Naitural occurrenceprimordial
Creestal structurface-centred cubic (fcc)
Face-centered cubic creestal structur for copper
Speed o soond thin rod(annealed)
3810 m/s (at r.t.)
Thermal expansion16.5 µm/(m·K) (at 25 °C)
Thermal conductivity401 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity16.78 n Ω·m (at 20 °C)
Magnetic orderindiamagnetic[3]
Young's modulus110–128 GPa
Shear modulus48 GPa
Bulk modulus140 GPa
Poisson ratio0.34
Mohs haurdness3.0
Vickers haurdness369 MPa
Brinell haurdness35 HB = 874 MPa
CAS Nummer7440-50-8
DiskiveryMiddle Eastrens (9000 BC)
Main isotopes o copper
Iso­tope Abun­dance Hauf-life (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct
63Cu 69.15% stable
64Cu syn 12.700 h ε 64Ni
β 64Zn
65Cu 30.85% stable
67Cu syn 61.83 h β 67Zn
| references

Capper is a chemical element in the periodic cairt that haes the seembol Cu (L.: Cuprum) an atomic nummer 29. It is a ductile metal wi vera heich thermal an electrical conductivity. A freshly exposed surface o pure capper has a reiddish-orange colour. Capper is uised as a conductor o heat an electricity, as a biggin material, an as a constituent o various metal alloys, sic as sterling siller uised in jewelry, cupronickel uised tae mak marine haurdware an cunyies, an constantan uised in strain gauges an thermocouples for temperatur meisurment.

Capper is ane o the few metals that can occur in naitur in a directly uisable metallic form (native metals). This led tae verra early human uise in several regions, frae c. 8000 BC. Thoosands o years later, it wis the first metal tae be smeltit frae sulfide ores, c. 5000 BC, the first metal tae be cast intae a shape in a mauld, c. 4000 BC an the first metal tae be purposefully alloyed wi anither metal, tin, tae creaut bronze, c. 3500 BC.[4]

In the Roman era, capper wis principally mined on Cyprus, the oreegin o the name o the metal, fae aes cyprium (metal o Cyprus), later corruptit tae cuprum (Latin), frae that the wirds derived.[5]

The commonly encoontert compoonds are capper(II) sauts, that eften impairt blue or green colours tae sic minerals as azurite, malachite, an turquoise, an hae been uised widely an historically as pigments.

Capper uised in biggins, uisually for ruifin, oxidises tae form a green verdigris (or patina). Capper is whiles uised in decorative airt, baith in its elemental metal form an in compoonds as pigments. Capper compoonds are used as bacteriostatic augents, fungicides, an wid preservatives.

Copper is essential tae aw leevin organisms as a trace dietar mineral acause it is a key constituent o the respiratory enzyme complex cytochrome c oxidase. In molluscs an crustaceans, capper is a constituent o the bluid pigment hemocyanin, replaced bi the airn-complexed hemoglobin in fish an ither vertebrates. In humans, capper is foond mainly in the liver, muscle, an bane.[6] The adult body contains atween 1.4 and 2.1 mg of copper per kilogram of body weight.[7]


[eedit | eedit soorce]
  1. Meija, Juris; et al. (2016). "Atomic weights of the elements 2013 (IUPAC Technical Report)". Pure and Applied Chemistry. 88 (3): 265–91. doi:10.1515/pac-2015-0305.
  2. Moret, Marc-Etienne; Zhang, Limei; Peters, Jonas C. (2013). "A Polar Copper–Boron One-Electron σ-Bond". J. Am. Chem. Soc. 135 (10): 3792–3795. doi:10.1021/ja4006578. PMID 23418750.
  3. Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds in Lide, D. R., ed. (2005). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (86th ed.). Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press. ISBN 0-8493-0486-5.
  4. McHenry, Charles, ed. (1992). The New Encyclopedia Britannica. 3 (15 ed.). Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica, Inc. p. 612. ISBN 0-85229-553-7.
  5. "Copper". Merriam-Webster Dictionary. 2018. Retrieved 22 August 2018.
  6. Johnson, MD PhD, Larry E., ed. (2008). "Copper". Merck Manual Home Health Handbook. Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp., a subsidiary of Merck & Co., Inc. Archived frae the original on 7 Mairch 2016. Retrieved 7 Apryle 2013.
  7. "Copper in human health".